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Various accessibility activities are improving blind access to the increasingly indispensable WWW. These approaches use various metrics to measure the Web's accessibility. “Ease of navigation” (navigability) is one of the crucial factors for blind usability, especially for complicated webpages used in portals and online shopping sites. However,(More)
Accessibility-related regulations and guidelines are contributing to the steady improvement of Web accessibility. There are various accessibility evaluation tools, and they also help Web authors make their pages compliant with guidelines. As a result, an increasing number of Web pages are compliant with the evaluation tools. These days, however, blind(More)
Rich Internet content, such as Flash and DHTML, has been spreading all over the net, since it can provide rich and dynamic Web experiences for the sighted majority. It is obvious that this content is inaccessible for visually impaired people because of its visual richness. For Flash, many efforts have been made to address the issue, such as accessibility(More)
We extend Kobayashi and Sumii's type system for the deadlock free π-calculus and develop a type reconstruction algorithm. Kobayashi and Sumii's type system helps high-level reasoning about concurrent programs by guaranteeing that communication on certain channels will eventually succeed. It can ensure, for example, that a process implementing a function(More)
Crowdsourcing for social goals (e.g., supporting public libraries or people with disabilities) is a promising area. However, little is known about how to develop active worker communities for such goals. First, we need reliable metrics for the workers' motivation. Second, the characteristics of senior crowd workers have rarely been studied, even though they(More)
Recent incidents involving the loss of personal information and identity theft have raised concerns worldwide over information privacy. In Japan, the Personal Information Protection Act went into effect in April 2005, requiring every enterprise to manage sensitive personal information on servers, workstations, and personal computers throughout the(More)