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Position-specific entropy profiles created from scanning 306 human and 95 avian influenza A viral genomes showed that 228 of 4591 amino acid residues yielded significant differences between these 2 viruses. We subsequently used 15,785 protein sequences from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) to assess the robustness of these signatures(More)
Phospho-DARPP-32 (where DARPP-32 is dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32,000), its homolog, phospho-inhibitor-1, and inhibitor-2 are potent inhibitors (IC50 approximately 1 nM) of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1). Our previous studies have indicated that a region encompassing residues 6-11 (RKKIQF) and phospho-Thr-34, of(More)
There are no antivirals or vaccines available to treat Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections. Although the type I interferon response, elicited upon virus infection, is critical to establishing host antiviral innate immunity, EV71 fails to induce this response efficiently. Here we provide new insights into potential anti-EV71 therapy by showing that(More)
The human glioblastoma SF268 cell line was used to investigate the induction of apoptosis by the 3C protease of enterovirus 71 (EV71). Transient expression in these cells of the wild-type 3C protein encoded by EV71 induced morphological alterations typical of apoptosis, including generation of apoptotic bodies. Degradation of cellular DNA in nucleosomes was(More)
Cluster A enteroviruses, including enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), are known to cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Despite the close genetic relationship between these two viruses, EV71 is generally known to be a more perpetuating pathogen involved in severe clinical manifestations and deaths. While the serotyping of(More)
An influenza epidemic was detected in April 2009 at the border between the United States and Mexico. The virus was identified soon after to be a swine-origin influenza virus A (S-OIV A) (H1N1). This virus has an HA gene that is derived from the 1918 swine influenza virus and other genes from human, avian, and Eurasian swine influenza viruses. Clinically, it(More)
BACKGROUND Enterovirus 71 (EV71) can cause severe diseases and even lead to death in children. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral therapy to prevent or cure EV71 infection. Although interferon (IFN)-α has been used in the treatment of several viral infections, we found that IFN-α alone was ineffective in restricting EV71 replication in Vero cells. (More)
When skeletons of Win compounds were used as templates, computer-assisted drug design led to the identification of a novel series of imidazolidinone derivatives with significant antiviral activity against enterovirus 71 (EV 71), the infection of which had resulted in about 80 fatalities during the 1998 epidemic outbreak in Taiwan. In addition to inhibiting(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection may be asymptomatic or may cause diarrhea, rashes, and hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). However, EV71 also has the potential to cause severe neurological disease. To date, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of host response to EV71 infection. In this report, we utilized cDNA microarray to profile the kinetics(More)
Nine hundred and seventy-eight clinical specimens were examined taken from patients with respiratory tract viruses (RV)-like syndrome between November 1996 and July 1998. The study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of centrifuge-enhanced shell vial cultures (SVC) containing Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, combined with immunofluorescent(More)