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Position-specific entropy profiles created from scanning 306 human and 95 avian influenza A viral genomes showed that 228 of 4591 amino acid residues yielded significant differences between these 2 viruses. We subsequently used 15,785 protein sequences from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) to assess the robustness of these signatures(More)
OBJECTIVE In 1998, an enterovirus 71 (EV71) epidemic in Taiwan was associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD)/herpangina and involved 78 fatal cases. We measured EV71 seroprevalence rates before and after the epidemic and investigated risk factors associated with EV71 infection and illness. METHODS Neutralizing antibodies to EV71 were assayed(More)
Picornaviruses cause several diseases, not only in humans but also in various animal hosts. For instance, human enteroviruses can cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease, herpangina, myocarditis, acute flaccid paralysis, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, severe neurological complications, including brainstem encephalitis, meningitis and poliomyelitis, and even(More)
Phospho-DARPP-32 (where DARPP-32 is dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32,000), its homolog, phospho-inhibitor-1, and inhibitor-2 are potent inhibitors (IC50 approximately 1 nM) of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1). Our previous studies have indicated that a region encompassing residues 6-11 (RKKIQF) and phospho-Thr-34, of(More)
Adaptive mutations that have contributed to the emergence of influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, which can replicate and transmit among humans, remain unknown. We conducted a large-scale scanning of influenza protein sequences and identified amino acid-conserving positions that are specific to host species, called signatures. Of 47 signatures that(More)
There are no antivirals or vaccines available to treat Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections. Although the type I interferon response, elicited upon virus infection, is critical to establishing host antiviral innate immunity, EV71 fails to induce this response efficiently. Here we provide new insights into potential anti-EV71 therapy by showing that(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic pathogen that can cause severe neural diseases and complications on infected patients. Clinical observations showed that EV71-induced immune responses may be associated with virus induced neurogenic pulmonary edema. Here reviewed studies that discovered several host molecules as potential factors for EV71 virulence.
Cluster A enteroviruses, including enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), are known to cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Despite the close genetic relationship between these two viruses, EV71 is generally known to be a more perpetuating pathogen involved in severe clinical manifestations and deaths. While the serotyping of(More)
The single-stranded RNA virus enterovirus 71 (EV71), which belongs to the Picornaviridae family, has caused epidemics worldwide, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. Most EV71 infections result in mild clinical symptoms, including herpangina and hand, foot and mouth disease. However, serious pathological complications have also been reported, especially(More)
Enterovirus 71 is one of the most important pathogens in the family of Picornaviridae that can cause severe complications in the postpoliovirus era, such as encephalitis, pulmonary edema, and even death. Pyridyl imidazolidinone is a novel class of potent and selective human enterovirus 71 inhibitor. Pyridyl imidazolidinone was identified by using(More)