Shin Miyakawa

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CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are crucial mediators of autoimmune tolerance. The factors that regulate Treg cells, however, are largely unknown. Here, we show that deficiency in midkine (MK), a heparin-binding growth factor involved in oncogenesis, inflammation, and tissue repair, attenuated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) because(More)
ATX is a plasma lysophospholipase D that hydrolyzes lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and produces lysophosphatidic acid. To date, no ATX-inhibition-mediated treatment strategies for human diseases have been established. Here, we report anti-ATX DNA aptamers that inhibit ATX with high specificity and efficacy. We solved the crystal structure of ATX in complex(More)
The new thiolactone antibiotic, thiolactomycin, is rapidly absorbed in rats when administered either orally or by intramuscular injection. A peak in concentration of the drug is reached in the blood and in various visceral organs within 15 minutes after administration. The concentration decreases rather rapidly and about 51-69% of the drug is excreted in(More)
Thiolactomycin is a new broad-spectrum antibiotic, active in vitro against many species of Gram-positive cocci, Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus, acid-fast bacteria and anaerobic bacteria. However, the activity is generally moderate and bacteriostatic in action. This antibiotic eludes cross resistance with any of the known antibacterial drugs such as(More)
Midkine is a heparin-binding growth factor highly expressed in various cancers, including neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor. Prognosis of patients with neuroblastoma in which MYCN is amplified remains particularly poor. In this study, we used a MYCN transgenic model for neuroblastoma in which midkine is highly expressed in(More)
Potential applications for functional RNAs are rapidly expanding, not only to address functions based on primary nucleotide sequences, but also by RNA aptamer, which can suppress the activity of any target molecule. Aptamers are short DNA or RNA folded molecules that can be selected in vitro on the basis of their high affinity for a target molecule. Here,(More)
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) plays a crucial multimodulatory role in mRNA translation and decay by interacting with other translation factors and mRNA-associated proteins. In this study, we isolated eight different RNA aptamers with high affinity to mammalian eIF4G by in vitro RNA selection amplification. Of these, three aptamers(More)
Aptamers are short single-stranded nucleic acids with high affinity to target molecules and are applicable to therapeutics and diagnostics. Regardless of an increasing number of reported aptamers, the structural basis of the interaction of RNA aptamer with proteins is poorly understood. Here, we determined the 2.15 Å crystal structure of the Fc fragment of(More)
Aptamers, which are folded DNA or RNA molecules, bind to target molecules with high affinity and specificity. An RNA aptamer specific for the Fc fragment of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) has recently been identified and it has been demonstrated that an optimized 24-nucleotide RNA aptamer binds to the Fc fragment of human IgG and not to other species. In(More)
Aptamers are short, single-stranded nucleic acid sequences that are selected in vitro from large oligonucleotide libraries based on their high affinity to a target molecule. Hence, aptamers can be thought of as a nucleic acid analog to antibodies. However, several viewpoints hold that the potential of aptamers arises from interesting characteristics that(More)