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CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are crucial mediators of autoimmune tolerance. The factors that regulate Treg cells, however, are largely unknown. Here, we show that deficiency in midkine (MK), a heparin-binding growth factor involved in oncogenesis, inflammation, and tissue repair, attenuated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) because(More)
The possible role of catalysis in forming a limited number of RNAs from activated monomers is investigated by examining the sequence- and regioselectivity in the montmorillonite-catalyzed formation of RNA dimers and trimers. The reactivity of A was similar to that of G, and C was comparable in reactivity to U. Yet the reactivity of the purine nucleotides(More)
Aptamers are short single-stranded nucleic acids with high affinity to target molecules and are applicable to therapeutics and diagnostics. Regardless of an increasing number of reported aptamers, the structural basis of the interaction of RNA aptamer with proteins is poorly understood. Here, we determined the 2.15 Å crystal structure of the Fc fragment of(More)
SUMMARY According to the recent observations of IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) address allocation status, it will be running out within few years. Consequently, to ensure the continuous extension of the Internet operation, introducing IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) protocol is surely needed. But at the same time, such transformation must be " smooth(More)
Aptamers are short, single-stranded nucleic acid sequences that are selected in vitro from large oligonucleotide libraries based on their high affinity to a target molecule. Hence, aptamers can be thought of as a nucleic acid analog to antibodies. However, several viewpoints hold that the potential of aptamers arises from interesting characteristics that(More)
IPv4 addresses are nearly exhausted worldwide. For some time until IPv6 becomes pervasive as an ultimate solution, deployment of Carrier Grade NAT (CGN) devices becomes necessary, especially in the mobile carriers' networks which anticipate a large and growing number of new users. In this context, we tackle the evaluation of the impact of inserting a CGN(More)
The core networking research community is witnessing a trend that many researchers attempt, and some achieve, a high speed packet processing rate using software-based approach. Yet, the extent of performance that can be obtained by deploying only Personal Computers (PCs), or Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) devices, remains as an open-ended question. This is(More)
Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) plays a crucial role in bone remodeling and disease progression. However, the potential of FGF2 antagonists for treatment of patients with bone diseases has not yet been explored. Therefore, we generated a novel RNA aptamer, APT-F2, specific for human FGF2 and characterized its properties in vitro and in vivo. APT-F2(More)
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