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The aetiology of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal paralytic disease, is largely unknown. Here we show that there is a defect in the editing of the messenger RNA encoding the GluR2 subunit of glutamate AMPA receptors in the spinal motor neurons of individuals affected by ALS. This failure to swap an arginine for a glutamine residue at a(More)
Enhancement of calcium influx through the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)/kainate receptor is a plausible mechanism underlying selective neuronal death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The calcium conductance of the AMPA receptor is regulated by the GluR2 subunit that is edited at the glutamine/arginine residue site in the(More)
The vestibular nerves are known to influence neuronal circuits in the medullary cardiovascular areas and, through the cerebellar vermis, the basal ganglia and the limbic system. By means of noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), it might be possible to ameliorate blunted responsiveness of degenerated neuronal circuits of patients with multi system(More)
Glutamate transporters play a pivotal role in terminating glutamatergic transmission by eliminating glutamate from the synaptic cleft. Four different glutamate transporter cDNAs have been isolated thus far, and their tissue distribution has been investigated using northern blot and immunohistochemical analysis. We raised site-directed antisera against a(More)
GluR2 is a subunit of the AMPA receptor, and the adenosine for the Q/R site of its pre-mRNA is converted to inosine (A-to-I conversion) by the enzyme called adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2). Failure of A-to-I conversion at this site affects multiple AMPA receptor properties, including the Ca(2+) permeability of the receptor-coupled ion channel,(More)
Compelling evidence supports contributions of glutamate receptor overactivation ('excitotoxicity') to neurodegeneration in both acute conditions, such as stroke, and chronic neurodegenerative conditions, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, anti-excitotoxic therapeutic trials, which have generally targeted highly Ca2+ permeable NMDA-type(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess corticospinal tract involvement in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by correlating diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures with intra- and extracranial central motor conduction time (CMCT) and clinical features of the patients. METHODS We investigated 31 patients with ALS and 31 normal volunteers by DTI and measured(More)
We aimed to obtain a reliable, objective scale representing disease severity for appropriate management of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Nineteen patients with PD at the Department of Neurology, Tokyo University Hospital, were classified into mild (n = 10) or severe groups (n = 9) depending on their Hoehn-Yahr scores, and wore accelerometers on(More)
One plausible hypothesis for selective neuronal death in sporadic amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is excitotoxicity mediated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptors, which are a subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors. The Ca2+ conductance of AMPA receptors differs markedly depending on whether the GluR2 (or GluR-B) subunit(More)
In human brain, developmental up-regulation in RNA editing at the Q/R site was evident in GluR5 and GluR6, but GluR2 editing in the white matter was down-regulated. Each ADAR mRNA expression was up-regulated in the gray matter, whereas differently regulated in the white matter. ADAR2 mRNA was not overexpressed in the brains of Down's syndrome subjects, nor(More)