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The aetiology of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal paralytic disease, is largely unknown. Here we show that there is a defect in the editing of the messenger RNA encoding the GluR2 subunit of glutamate AMPA receptors in the spinal motor neurons of individuals affected by ALS. This failure to swap an arginine for a glutamine residue at a(More)
In human brain, developmental up-regulation in RNA editing at the Q/R site was evident in GluR5 and GluR6, but GluR2 editing in the white matter was down-regulated. Each ADAR mRNA expression was up-regulated in the gray matter, whereas differently regulated in the white matter. ADAR2 mRNA was not overexpressed in the brains of Down's syndrome subjects, nor(More)
Compelling evidence supports contributions of glutamate receptor overactivation ('excitotoxicity') to neurodegeneration in both acute conditions, such as stroke, and chronic neurodegenerative conditions, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, anti-excitotoxic therapeutic trials, which have generally targeted highly Ca2+ permeable NMDA-type(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset fatal motor neuron disease. In spinal motor neurons of patients with sporadic ALS, normal RNA editing of GluA2, a subunit of the L-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor, is inefficient. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) specifically mediates RNA(More)
PURPOSE Diffusion tensor imaging can evaluate the cerebral white matter quantitatively using fractional anisotropy (FA) and also can extract a certain tract by tractography, but these two have been used separately and not combined. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical feasibility of ROI analysis using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess corticospinal tract involvement in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by correlating diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures with intra- and extracranial central motor conduction time (CMCT) and clinical features of the patients. METHODS We investigated 31 patients with ALS and 31 normal volunteers by DTI and measured(More)
Both the appearance of cytoplasmic inclusions containing phosphorylated TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) and inefficient RNA editing at the GluR2 Q/R site are molecular abnormalities observed specifically in motor neurons of patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The purpose of this study is to determine whether a link exists between(More)
The vestibular nerves are known to influence neuronal circuits in the medullary cardiovascular areas and, through the cerebellar vermis, the basal ganglia and the limbic system. By means of noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), it might be possible to ameliorate blunted responsiveness of degenerated neuronal circuits of patients with multi system(More)
The ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway (ubiquitin pathway) is believed to be involved in the formation of various neuronal inclusion bodies including Lewy bodies (LBs), a pathological hallmark of Parkinson disease and diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD). Since multicatalytic proteinase (MCP) is involved in the ubiquitin pathway, an investigation of(More)
The ionotropic glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits GluR2, GluR5 and GluR6 are subject to RNA editing at their Q/R sites, resulting in significant alterations in the channel properties of the receptors. RNA editing at the Q/R site of GluRs is both developmentally and regionally regulated. Here we provide the first quantitative measurements of both mRNAs of(More)