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Two H9N2 viruses were isolated, for the first time, from humans in Hong Kong in 1999. Isolation of influenza viruses with a novel subtype of the hemagglutinin (HA) drew attention of health care authorities worldwide from the view of pandemic preparedness. Sequence analysis of the HA genes reveals that HA of A/Hong Kong/1073/99 (H9N2) is most closely related(More)
We determined the ratio of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) to N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) in swine respiratory epithelia by fluorometric high-performance liquid chromatography, and examined the binding specificity of swine influenza virus strains for gangliosides containing different molecular species of sialic acid (Neu5Ac and Neu5Gc), and for(More)
The emergence of collective strategies in a prey-predator system is studied. We use the term "collective" in the sense of the collective motion of defense or attack often found in behaviors of animal groups. In our prey-predator system, both prey and predators move around on a two-dimensional plane, interacting by playing a game; predators can score by(More)
The production of eotaxin, which is a critical mediator for airway inflammation, is inhibited by IFN-gamma. Here, we investigated the precise mechanisms underlying IFN-gamma-dependent inhibition of eotaxin production using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). MEF produced high levels of eotaxin in STAT6-dependent manner when they were cultured with both IL-4(More)
Eukaryotic cells can move spontaneously without being guided by external cues. For such spontaneous movements, a variety of different modes have been observed, including the amoeboid-like locomotion with protrusion of multiple pseudopods, the keratocyte-like locomotion with a widely spread lamellipodium, cell division with two daughter cells crawling in(More)
Amoebic cells are ubiquitous in many species and have been used as model systems to study the eukaryotic cellular locomotion. We construct a model of amoebic cells on two-dimensional grids, which describes sensing, cell status, and locomotion in a unified way. We show that the averaged position of simulated cells is described by a second-order differential(More)
Morphologies of moving amoebae are categorized into two types. One is the "neutrophil" type in which the long axis of cell roughly coincides with its moving direction. This type of cell extends a leading edge at the front and retracts a narrow tail at the rear, whose shape has been often drawn as a typical amoeba in textbooks. The other one is the(More)
Amoeboid cells such as Dictyostelium discoideum and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells show the non-Brownian dynamics of migration characterized by the superdiffusive increase of mean-squared displacement. In order to elucidate the physical mechanism of this non-Brownian dynamics, a computational model is developed which highlights a group of inhibitory(More)