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Tight junctions are well-developed between adjacent endothelial cells of blood vessels in the central nervous system, and play a central role in establishing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Claudin-5 is a major cell adhesion molecule of tight junctions in brain endothelial cells. To examine its possible involvement in the BBB, claudin-5-deficient mice were(More)
As the first step in understanding the physiologic functions of claudins (tight junction integral membrane proteins) in nephrons, the expression of claudin-1 to -16 in mouse kidneys was examined by Northern blotting. Among these claudins, only claudin-6, -9, -13, and -14 were not detectable. Claudin-5 and -15 were detected only in endothelial cells.(More)
Adrenal insufficiency is believed to occur frequently in severe sepsis and septic shock. The aim of the present study was to determine whether adrenal function is also related to the severity of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In total, 64 Japanese patients with CAP were consecutively enrolled in the present study, which was carried out during(More)
No methods for isolating induced alveolar epithelial progenitor cells (AEPCs) from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been reported. Based on a study of the stepwise induction of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), we identified carboxypeptidase M (CPM) as a surface marker of NKX2-1(+) "ventralized" anterior(More)
Multi-ciliated airway cells (MCACs) play a role in mucociliary clearance of the lung. However, the efficient induction of functional MCACs from human pluripotent stem cells has not yet been reported. Using carboxypeptidase M (CPM) as a surface marker of NKX2-1(+)-ventralized anterior foregut endoderm cells (VAFECs), we report a three-dimensional(More)
In the rat combination DA into PVG, liver grafts are not rejected but induce donor-specific transplantation tolerance. We have examined the immunosuppressive properties of spleen cells from PVG recipients of DA liver grafts at various times post-grafting. The results indicate the development of two phases of cell-mediated suppressor activity, which appear(More)
BACKGROUND Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) occurs predominantly in immunocompromised hosts, however increasing numbers of cases of IPA have been reported among basically immunocompetent patients who have some pulmonary abnormalities such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). CASE Case 1. A 67-year-old man was admitted(More)