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AIMS Effect of ethidium bromide, a DNA intercalating agent, on laccase production from Cyathus bulleri was studied. METHODS AND RESULTS The bird's nest fungus, Cyathus bulleri was grown on 2% (w/v) malt extract agar (MEA) supplemented with 1.5 microg ml(-1) of the phenanthridine dye ethidium bromide (EtBr) for 7 d and when grown subsequently in malt(More)
Monocytes are major targets of HIV infection in patients with AIDS. In vitro infection of monocytes with HIV is associated with increased expression of beta 2 integrins, which increases both monocyte aggregation and monocyte/endothelial adhesion as well as monocyte metalloproteinase (MMP-9) expression. Treatment of primary monocytes with soluble HIV-Tat(More)
The frequency of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected monocytes that spread on a model basement membrane was about twofold greater than that of an equal number of uninfected control cells through the initial 12 to 18 h of culture. By 24 h, virtually all HIV-infected and uninfected control cells spread on the basement membrane gel. The frequency of(More)
Most inflammatory agents activate nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) which results in expression of genes for cytokines, adhesion molecules, and enzymes involved in amplification and perpetuation of inflammation. Emodin (3-methyl-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone) is an active component from the roots of Polygonum cuspidatum that has been reported(More)
Recruitment of leukocytes by endothelial cells and their subsequent migration from the vasculature into the tissue play major roles in inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of curcumin, an antiinflammatory agent, on the adhesion of monocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EC). Treatment of EC with tumor necrosis factor(More)
HIV infection of monocytes resulted in twofold elevation of adhesion molecule LFA-1 (both alpha L/CD11a and beta 2/CD18 subunits) and LFA-3 (CD58), with no apparent increase in LFA-2 (CD2) or various beta 1-integrins. Homotypic aggregation of monocytes was evident 2 h after exposure to virus and was inhibited by mAbs to both the alpha L- and beta 2-subunits(More)
Treatment of primary monocytes with soluble HIV-Tat protein is associated with increased monocyte metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression and enhanced beta 2 integrin expression that increases monocyte/endothelial adhesion. These alterations require greater than 12 h of HIV-Tat treatment, suggesting the involvement of intermediate factors. Thus, we have(More)
Monocytes are susceptible to HIV infection and to activation by a regulatory gene product of the HIV genome, HIV-Tat. Recently, we have demonstrated that treatment with HIV-Tat up-regulates monocyte adhesion to the endothelium and increases metalloproteinase production. in the present study, we have examined the ability of the HIV-Tat protein to alter the(More)
HIV-infected monocytes form highly invasive network on basement membrane matrix and secrete high levels of 92-kd metalloproteinase (MMP-9), an enzyme that degrades basement membrane proteins. In the present study, using matrigel as a model basement membrane system, we demonstrate that treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected monocytes with(More)
Human vascular endothelial cells (EC) have been implicated in the dissemination of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). HIV-1-tat, a viral gene product essential for HIV replication, has been shown to interact with different cell types, altering their growth and inducing gene expression. In the present report, we have examined the effect of HIV-tat(More)