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Inter-organelle signaling plays important roles in many physiological functions. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrion signaling affects intramitochondrial calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis and cellular bioenergetics. ER-nucleus signaling attenuates ER stress. ER-plasma membrane signaling regulates cytosolic Ca(2+) homeostasis and ER-mitochondrion-plasma(More)
We report that two types of stable protein-DNA complexes, or transpososomes, are generated in vitro during the Mu DNA strand transfer reaction. The Type 1 complex is an intermediate in the reaction. Its formation requires a supercoiled mini-Mu donor plasmid, Mu A and HU protein, and Mg2+. In the Type 1 complex the two ends of Mu are held together, creating(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) can affect up to 50% of infected people during the disease course. While antiretroviral therapies have substantively increased the quality of life and reduced HIV-1-associated dementia, less severe minor cognitive and motor deficits continue. Trafficking of HIV-1 into the(More)
One of the hallmark features underlying the pathogenesis of HIV encephalitis is the disruption of blood–brain barrier (BBB). Cocaine, often abused by HIV-infected patients, has been suggested to worsen the HIV-associated dementia (HAD) via unknown mechanisms. The objective of the present study was to explore the effects of cocaine on BBB permeability using(More)
Chemokines play a key role in the regulation of central nervous system disease. CXCL10 over-expression has been observed in several neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and HIV-associated dementia. More recent studies by others and us have shown that CXCL10 elicits apoptosis in fetal neurons. The mechanism of(More)
With the increasing prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognititve disorders (HAND), understanding the mechanisms by which HIV-1 induces neuro-inflammation and subsequent neuronal damage is important. The hallmark features of HIV-encephalitis, the pathological correlate of HIV-associated Dementia (HAD), are gliosis, oxidative stress, chemokine dysregulation,(More)
Neuroinflammation associated with advanced HIV-1 infection is often exacerbated in cocaine-abusing, HIV-infected patients. The underlying mechanisms could, in part, be attributed to the increased impairment of blood brain barrier integrity in the presence of cocaine. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has been implicated in several pathologic conditions,(More)
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, plays a critical role in leukocyte recruitment and activation. In the present study, we identify an additional role for CCL2 that of neuroprotection against HIV-1 transactivator protein (Tat) toxicity in rat primary midbrain neurons. Furthermore, we report the(More)
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are widely expressed in the mammalian brain and are essential for neuronal functions. These receptors are believed to be actively regulated by intracellular signals, although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we show that Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) binds(More)