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Inter-organelle signaling plays important roles in many physiological functions. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrion signaling affects intramitochondrial calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis and cellular bioenergetics. ER-nucleus signaling attenuates ER stress. ER-plasma membrane signaling regulates cytosolic Ca(2+) homeostasis and ER-mitochondrion-plasma(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the role of oxidative stress in mediating HIV dementia and to identify novel therapeutic compounds that may block this oxidative stress. METHODS Brain tissue from patients with HIV encephalitis and macaques with simian immune deficiency virus encephalitis was immunostained for lipid peroxidation. Oxidized proteins in CSF of patients(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) can affect up to 50% of infected people during the disease course. While antiretroviral therapies have substantively increased the quality of life and reduced HIV-1-associated dementia, less severe minor cognitive and motor deficits continue. Trafficking of HIV-1 into the(More)
We report that two types of stable protein-DNA complexes, or transpososomes, are generated in vitro during the Mu DNA strand transfer reaction. The Type 1 complex is an intermediate in the reaction. Its formation requires a supercoiled mini-Mu donor plasmid, Mu A and HU protein, and Mg2+. In the Type 1 complex the two ends of Mu are held together, creating(More)
One of the hallmark features underlying the pathogenesis of HIV encephalitis is the disruption of blood–brain barrier (BBB). Cocaine, often abused by HIV-infected patients, has been suggested to worsen the HIV-associated dementia (HAD) via unknown mechanisms. The objective of the present study was to explore the effects of cocaine on BBB permeability using(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is now being driven by drug-abusing populations. Epidemiological studies on drug abusers with AIDS link abuse of cocaine, even more than other drugs, to increased incidence of HIV seroprevalence and progression to AIDS. Both cell culture and animal studies demonstrate that cocaine can both potentiate HIV(More)
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are widely expressed in the mammalian brain and are essential for neuronal functions. These receptors are believed to be actively regulated by intracellular signals, although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we show that Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) binds(More)
HIV encephalitis (HIVE), the pathologic correlate of HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is characterized by astrogliosis, cytokine/chemokine dysregulation, and neuronal degeneration. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation is actively involved in the pathogenesis of HAD. In fact, the severity of HAD/HIVE correlates more closely with the presence of(More)
In addition to its role in virus entry, HIV-1 gp120 has also been implicated in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for gp120-mediated neuroinflammation remain undefined. In view of increased levels of IL-6 in HIV-positive individuals with neurological manifestations, we sought to address whether gp120 is involved(More)