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Cadmium (Cd), a highly toxic environmental pollutant, induces neurodegenerative diseases. Recently we have demonstrated that Cd may induce neuronal apoptosis in part through activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) pathways. However, the underlying mechanism remains enigmatic. Here we show that Cd(More)
Cadmium (Cd), a highly toxic environmental pollutant, induces neurodegenerative diseases. Recently we have demonstrated that Cd induces neuronal apoptosis in part through activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show that Cd induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)(More)
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an orange-yellow component of turmeric or curry powder, is a polyphenol natural product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparation or used as a food-coloring agent. In recent years, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies suggested curcumin has(More)
Cadmium (Cd), a toxic environmental contaminant, induces oxidative stress, leading to neurodegenerative disorders. Recently we have demonstrated that Cd induces neuronal apoptosis in part by activation of the mitogen-activated protein kineses (MAPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we(More)
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol natural product of the plant Curcuma longa, is undergoing early clinical trials as a novel anticancer agent. However, the anticancer mechanism of curcumin remains to be elucidated. Here we show that curcumin inhibited growth of rhabdomyosarcoma cells (Rh1 and Rh30) (IC50 = 2-5 microM) and arrested cells in G1 phase(More)
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol natural product of the plant Curcuma longa, is undergoing early clinical trials as a novel anticancer agent. However, the anticancer mechanism of curcumin remains to be elucidated. Recently, we have shown that curcumin inhibits phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an atypical serine/threonine kinase, plays a central role in the regulation of cell proliferation, growth, differentiation, migration and survival. Dysregulation of mTOR signaling occurs in diverse human tumours, and can confer higher susceptibility to inhibitors of mTOR. Rapamycin and its derivatives, CCI-779 and(More)
Oxidative stress results in apoptosis of neuronal cells, leading to neurodegenerative disorders. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), a major oxidant generated when oxidative stress occurs, induced apoptosis of neuronal cells (PC12 cells and primary murine neurons), by(More)
Cadmium (Cd), a toxic environmental contaminant, induces neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, we have shown that Cd elevates intracellular free calcium ion ([Ca(2+) ](i) ) level, leading to neuronal apoptosis partly by activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. However, the underlying mechanism(More)
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central controller of cell growth, proliferation, metabolism and angiogenesis. mTOR signaling is often dysregulated in various human diseases and thus attracts great interest in developing drugs that target mTOR. Currently it is known that mTOR functions as two complexes, mTOR complex 1/2 (mTORC1/2). Rapamycin and(More)