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We report the complete sequence of an extreme halophile, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, harboring a dynamic 2,571,010-bp genome containing 91 insertion sequences representing 12 families and organized into a large chromosome and 2 related minichromosomes. The Halobacterium NRC-1 genome codes for 2,630 predicted proteins, 36% of which are unrelated to any(More)
The genome of the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and predicted proteome have been analyzed by computational methods and reveal characteristics relevant to life in an extreme environment distinguished by hypersalinity and high solar radiation: (1) The proteome is highly acidic, with a median pI of 4.9 and mostly lacking basic proteins. This(More)
We report on the identification and first cloning of an autonomously replicating sequence element from the chromosome of an archaeon, the extreme halophile Halobacterium strain NRC-1. The putative replication origin was identified by association with the orc7 gene and replication ability in the host strain, demonstrated by cloning into a nonreplicating(More)
The genome sequence of Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 encodes genes homologous to those responsible for conferring resistance to arsenic. These genes occur on both the large extrachromosomal replicon pNRC100 (arsADRC and arsR2M) and on the chromosome (arsB). We studied the role of these ars genes in arsenic resistance genetically by construction of gene(More)
Extremely halophilic archaea are highly resistant to multiple stressors, including radiation, desiccation and salinity. To study the basis of stress resistance and determine the maximum tolerance to ionizing radiation, we exposed cultures of the model halophile Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 to four cycles of irradiation with high doses of 18-20 MeV electrons. Two(More)
To facilitate the functional genomic analysis of an archaeon, we have developed a homologous gene replacement strategy for Halobacterium salinarum based on ura3, which encodes the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase. H. salinarum was shown to be sensitive to 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), which can select for mutations in(More)
We have investigated anaerobic respiration of the archaeal model organism Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 by using phenotypic and genetic analysis, bioinformatics, and transcriptome analysis. NRC-1 was found to grow on either dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as the sole terminal electron acceptor, with a doubling time of 1 day. An(More)
A glutamine synthetase gene from alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has been expressed in Escherichia coli after fusion of bacterial transcription and translation signals to a complete alfalfa glutamine synthetase coding sequence. Synthesis of the alfalfa glutamine synthetase enzyme in Escherichia coli was demonstrated by functional genetic complementation of a(More)
BACKGROUND Information transfer systems in Archaea, including many components of the DNA replication machinery, are similar to those found in eukaryotes. Functional assignments of archaeal DNA replication genes have been primarily based upon sequence homology and biochemical studies of replisome components, but few genetic studies have been conducted thus(More)