Shikhar Mehrotra

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T helper 17 (Th17) cells play a complex and controversial role in tumor immunity and have been found to exhibit a fluctuating identity within the context of cancer. The recent, expanding literature on these cells attests to their puzzling nature, either promoting or suppressing tumor growth depending on the malignancy and course of therapeutic intervention(More)
Mechanisms by which cancer cells communicate with the host organism to regulate lung colonization/metastasis are unclear. We show that this communication occurs via sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) generated systemically by sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1), rather than via tumour-derived S1P. Modulation of systemic, but not tumour SK1, prevented S1P elevation, and(More)
T-cell cytolytic activity targeting epidermal melanocytes is shown to cause progressive depigmentation and autoimmune vitiligo. By using the recently developed transgenic mice h3TA2 that carry T cells with a HLA-A2-restricted human tyrosinase peptide (h-Tyr)-reactive TCR and develop spontaneous vitiligo from an early age, we addressed the mechanism(More)
The Pim protein kinases contribute to transformation by enhancing the activity of oncogenic Myc and Ras, which drives significant metabolic changes during tumorigenesis. In this report, we demonstrate that mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking all three isoforms of Pim protein kinases, triple knockout (TKO), cannot tolerate the expression of activated(More)
In vitiligo, gradual cutaneous depigmentation and cytotoxic T-cell activity against melanocytes are accompanied by a paucity of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vitiligo patient skin, indicating that autoimmune responses are not adequately held in check. Thus, we sought a means to repopulate patient skin with Tregs. We hypothesized that enhanced expression of(More)
Persistence of effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) during an immunological response is critical for successfully controlling a viral infection or tumor growth. Various cytokines are known to play an important part in regulating the immune response. The IL-2 family of cytokines that includes IL-2 and IL-15 are known to function as growth and survival(More)
The inducible costimulator (ICOS) plays a key role in the development of Th17 cells, but its role in the development and antitumor activity of IL-17-producing CD8(+) T cells (Tc17) remains unknown. We found that ICOS costimulation was important for the functional maintenance, but not differentiation, of Tc17 cells in vitro. Blocking the ICOS pathway using(More)
We have recently demonstrated the characterization of human tyrosinase TCR bearing h3T-A2 transgenic mouse model, which exhibits spontaneous autoimmune vitiligo and retinal dysfunction. The purpose of current study was to determine the role of T cells and IFN-γ in retina dysfunction and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death using this model. RGC function was(More)
The mechanism by which retroviral proteins exert their immunosuppressive influence has remained enigmatic. Early studies have demonstrated that retroviral infection suppresses cellular and humoral immune responses. A hydrophilic 26 amino acid region of the otherwise hydrophobic transmembrane envelope protein of murine and feline leukemia viruses, p15E, is(More)
T cells of the T helper (Th)17 subset offer promise in adoptive T-cell therapy for cancer. However, current protocols for ex vivo programming of Th17 cells, which include TGFb exposure, increase the expression of CD39 and CD73, two cell surface ATP ectonucleotidases that reduce T-cell effector functions and promote immunosuppression. Here, we report that(More)