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The conversion of biomass into chemicals and energy is essential in order to sustain our present way of life. Fossil fuels are currently the predominant energy source, but fossil deposits are limited and not renewable. Biomass is a reliable potential source of materials, chemicals and energy that can be replenished to keep pace with our needs. A biorefinery(More)
The conversion of biomass to chemicals and energy is imperative to sustaining our way of life as known to us today. Fossil chemical and energy sources are traditionally regarded as wastes from a distant past. Petroleum, natural gas, and coal are not being regenerated in a sustainable manner. However, biomass sources such as algae, grasses, bushes and(More)
Atherosclerosis is characterized by accumulation of lipids and inflammatory cells in the arterial wall. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays important role in the genesis and progression of atheromatous plaque. Various scavenger receptors have been recognized in the past two decades that mediate uptake of ox-LDL leading to formation of foam(More)
OBJECTIVES Regulation of autophagy and apoptosis during treatment of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) with pro-atherogenic stimuli, such as oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS We examined the expression of autophagy and apoptosis upon treatment of VSMCs with ox-LDL. Exposure to ox-LDL in modest amounts(More)
Our studies in HUVECs show that ox-LDL induced autophagy and damaged mtDNA leading to TLR9 expression. LOX-1 antibody or the ROS inhibitor apocynin attenuated ox-LDL-mediated autophagy, mtDNA damage and TLR9 expression, suggesting that these events are LOX-1 and ROS-dependent phenomena. Experiments using siRNA to DNase II indicated that DNase II digests(More)
Woody biomass is renewable only if sustainable production is imposed. An optimum and sustainable biomass stand production rate is found to be one with the incremental growth rate at harvest equal to the average overall growth rate. Utilization of woody biomass leads to a sustainable economy. Woody biomass is comprised of at least four components:(More)
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related chemicals (collectively "PFOS equivalents") are currently manufactured and used in a wide variety of industrial processes in China. Since 2003, the national annual production has increased dramatically to accommodate both domestic demands and ongoing overseas needs for metal plating, fire-fighting foams,(More)
This paper reviews recent studies on human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in China, with particular focus on external exposure routes (e.g. diet and dust ingestion, inhalation of air) and internal doses based on biomonitoring studies of PBDEs (e.g. breast milk, blood and hair). PBDE concentrations reported for fish samples collected from(More)
Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) has been identified as a major receptor for oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Very few studies have reported regulation of LOX-1 expression by microRNAs in(More)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), used as flame retardants (BFRs), are incorporated in plastics of most electronic equipment. Among BFR mixtures, deca-BDE is the most widely used commercial additive in the polymer industry and the use of deca-BDE is currently not subject to any restrictions in China. However, debate over environmental and health risks(More)