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Glutamate released by activated microglia induces excitoneurotoxicity and may contribute to neuronal damage in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. In addition, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secreted from activated microglia may elicit neurodegeneration(More)
BACKGROUND Glutamate released by activated microglia induces excitotoxic neuronal death, which likely contributes to non-cell autonomous neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Although both blockade of glutamate receptors and inhibition of microglial activation are the therapeutic(More)
Newly discovered IL-9-producing helper T cells (Th9) reportedly exert both aggravating and suppressive roles on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. However, it is still unclear whether Th9 is a distinct Th cell subset and how IL-9 functions in the CNS. In this study, we show that IL-9 is produced by naive CD4(+)(More)
The neurodegenerative processes that underlie Alzheimer's disease are mediated, in part, by soluble oligomeric amyloid β, a neurotoxic protein that inhibits hippocampal long-term potentiation, disrupts synaptic plasticity, and induces the production of reactive oxygen species. Here we show that the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor (S1PR) agonist(More)
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a novel multifunctional IL-1 family cytokine. IL-33 signals via a heterodimer composed of IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP). IL-33 has been shown to activate T helper 2 cells (Th2), mast cells and basophils to produce a variety of Th2 cytokines and mediate allergic-type immune(More)
Interferon(IFN) is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays a pivotal role in pathology of diseases in the central nervous system (CNS), such as multiple sclerosis. However, the direct effect of IFNon neuronal cells has yet to be elucidated. We show here that IFNdirectly induces neuronal dysfunction, which appears as dendritic bead formation in mouse cortical(More)
Microglia, macrophage-like resident immune cells in the brain, possess both neurotoxic and neuroprotective properties and have a critical role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the function of Interleukin-34 (IL-34), a newly discovered cytokine, on microglia because it reportedly induces proliferation of monocytes and macrophages.(More)
Soluble oligomeric amyloid beta (oAbeta) 1-42 causes synaptic dysfunction and neuronal injury in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although accumulation of microglia around senile plaques is a hallmark of AD pathology, the role of microglia in oAbeta1-42 neurotoxicity is not fully understood. Here, we showed that oAbeta but not fibrillar Abeta was neurotoxic, and(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a 38-amino acid neuropeptide belonging to the secretin-glucagon-vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) family, performs a variety of functions in both the nervous and immune systems. In this study, we examined the effects of PACAP on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice.(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key molecules in the innate immune system in the central nervous system. Although astrocytes are believed to play physiological roles in regulating neuronal activity and synaptic transmission, activated astrocytes may also be toxic to neurons. Here, we show that the ligands for TLRs 2, 4, 5 and 6 induce neuronal cell death in(More)