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sgRNA:Cas9 at the YSA gene sgRNA2 site in rice. Alleles shown were amplified from genomic DNA isolated from 6 independent T0 transgenic plants separately and sequenced after cloned into vectors. The wild type sequence is shown at the top with the PAM sequence highlighted in magenta and the target sequence in cyan. Red dashes, deleted bases; red bases,(More)
DNA methylation is a conserved epigenetic mark in plants and mammals. In Arabidopsis, DNA methylation can be triggered by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) through an RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. Here, we report the identification of an RdDM effector, KTF1. Loss-of-function mutations in KTF1 reduce DNA methylation and release the silencing of(More)
RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is a conserved mechanism for epigenetic silencing of transposons and other repetitive elements. We report that the rdm4 (RNA-directed DNA Methylation4) mutation not only impairs RdDM, but also causes pleiotropic developmental defects in Arabidopsis. Both RNA polymerase II (Pol II)- and Pol V-dependent transcripts are(More)
Glu receptors are known to function as Glu-activated ion channels that mediate mostly excitatory neurotransmission in animals. Glu receptor-like genes have also been reported in higher plants, although their function is largely unknown. We have identified a rice (Oryza sativa) Glu receptor-like gene, designated GLR3.1, in which mutation by T-DNA insertion(More)
BACKGROUND Guidelines indicate eligibility for lipid lowering drugs, but it is not known to what extent GPs' follow guidelines in routine clinical practice or whether additional clinical factors systematically influence their prescribing decisions. METHODS A retrospective cohort analysis was undertaken using electronic primary care records from 421 UK(More)
This letter addresses the joint maximum likelihood carrier frequency offset (CFO) and channel estimation for asynchronous cooperative communication systems. We first present a space-alternating generalized expectation-maximization (SAGE) based iterative estimator (SAGE-IE). Then a low-complexity approximate SAGE-IE (A-SAGE-IE) is developed. Our proposed(More)
In this paper, we consider asynchronous two-way wireless relay networks with amplify-and-forward protocol (AFTWRN), where the distributed space-time code (DSTC) is utilized without synchronization among relays to assist the communication between two terminals. We analyze the pairwise error probability (PEP) behavior of DSTC for AF-TWRN under(More)
We propose a novel algorithm for the problem of nonorthogonal joint diagonalization of a set of structured matrices based on successive Jacobi-like transformations. Though the elementary transformation matrices we use are not optimal in the sense of the global criterion, they are ensured to be nonsingular, and can be computed in closed form. The algorithm(More)
In wireless <i>ad-hoc</i> networks, network coding can take advantage of the bi-directional traffic flows to increase the achievable throughput. In this letter, on the one hand, cooperative diversity based on distributed cyclic delay diversity is integrated into the physical network coding scheme to combat fading in wireless channel. On the other hand, to(More)