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Although many clinical trials on human papillomavirus (HPV) therapeutic vaccines have been performed, clinical responses have not been consistent. We have addressed mucosal cytotoxic cellular immune responses to HPV16 E7 after oral immunization of mice with recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing HPV16 E7 (LacE7). C57BL/6 mice were orally exposed to(More)
CD1d and CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells serve as a natural bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses to microbes. CD1d downregulation is utilized by a variety of microbes to evade immune detection. We demonstrate here that CD1d is downregulated in human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive cells in vivo and in vitro. CD1d immunoreactivity(More)
Mucosal epithelia of the human lower reproductive tract (vagina, cervix, and penile urethra) are exposed to sexually transmitted microbes, including Chlamydia trachomatis. The in vivo susceptibility of each tissue type to infection with C. trachomatis is quite distinct. CD1d is expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, including mucosal(More)
PROBLEM Local adaptive cervical regulatory T cells (Tregs) are the most likely direct suppressors of the immune eradication of cervical intraepithelial lesion (CIN). PD-1 expression on T cells induces Tregs. No studies have quantitatively analyzed the Tregs and PD-1+ cells residing in CIN lesions. METHOD OF STUDY Cervical lymphocytes were collected using(More)
PROBLEM Mucosal T cells are the most likely direct effectors in host anti-human papillomavirus adaptive immunity and regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions. There are no studies addressing intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) in CIN lesions. METHOD OF STUDY Cervical lymphocytes were collected using cytobrushes from patients with CIN(More)
PROBLEM Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator and thought to play an important role in pregnancy. Plasma LPA is produced by autotaxin (ATX), and ATX activity in plasma increases during pregnancy paralleled with gestational weeks and decreases to near the non-pregnant level soon after delivery. However, the source of increased ATX during(More)
PROBLEM  β(2) glycoprotein1 (β(2) GP1)-dependent antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) increase the risk for recurrent pregnancy loss. We address whether anti-β(2) GP1 antibodies can interact with phosphatidylserine (PS)-bearing CD1d on trophoblast cells and induce local inflammation. METHODS  CD1d-bearing choriocarcinoma cells were used in flow cytometry and(More)
Although many studies have already shown that lymph node metastasis is one of the major prognostic factors for cervical cancer, the therapeutic significance of para-aortic lymphadenectomy for the surgical treatment of cervical cancer remains controversial. A total of 308 patients diagnosed with stage IB2, IIA2, or IIB cervical cancer and treated with(More)