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BACKGROUND AND AIM Patients with achalasia typically have thicker lower esophageal sphincter muscles, which can affect the distensibility of the esophagogastric junction. We aimed to assess whether these muscular features, measured using high-frequency endoscopic ultrasound, affect treatment outcomes. METHODS Consecutive adult patients with suspected(More)
Ketamine has been increasingly used in medicine and has the potential for abuse or illicit use around the world. Ketamine cannot be removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants. Although ketamine and its metabolite norketamine have been detected to a significant degree in effluents and aquatic environments, their ecotoxicity effects in aquatic(More)
Hospital effluents are an important source of residual drugs and other classes of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments. The raw wastewater from the studied hospital exhibited acute toxicity to vertebrate organisms, and Cyprinus carpio was the most sensitive organism tested. A mixture of 19 commonly used pharmaceuticals caused acute toxicity to C. carpio(More)
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