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Memantine shows clinically relevant efficacy in patients with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Most in vivo and in vitro studies attribute the neuroprotective effects of memantine to the blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor on neurons. However, it cannot be excluded that mechanisms other than NMDA receptor blockade may contribute to(More)
Amantadine is commonly given to alleviate L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Animal and human evidence showed that amantadine may also exert neuroprotection in several neurological disorders. Additionally, it is generally believed that this neuroprotection results from the ability of amantadine to inhibit glutamatergic NMDA(More)
For decades, numerous ex vivo studies have documented that latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivates efficiently from ganglia, but rarely from the central nervous systems (CNS), of mice when assayed by mincing tissues before explant culture, despite the presence of viral genomes in both sites. Here we show that 88% of mouse brain stems reactivated(More)
The purpose of this report is to describe the use of telecommunication to improve the quality of postoperative care following microsurgery, especially following microvascular transfer of intestinal transfer for which shortening of ischemia time is of utmost importance to achieve high success rate. From 2003 to 2009 microvascular transfer of intestinal flaps(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes fatal encephalitis in young children. However, there is no effective antiviral drug available for infected patients. Ribavirin is currently used for the treatment of several RNA virus infections clinically, so its anti-EV71 efficacy was evaluated. In vitro results showed that ribavirin effectively reduced the viral yields (with(More)
BACKGROUND Alcohol dependence is usually comorbid with anxiety disorder, depressive disorder, or both; this comorbidity may increase drinking behavior. We previously hypothesized that anxiety-depressive alcohol dependence (ANX/DEP ALC) was a genetically specific subtype of alcohol dependence. ANX/DEP ALC may be related to dopamine and serotonin, which are(More)
Previous studies on acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) focused on drinking behavior or alcoholism because the ALDH2*2 allele protects against the risk of developing alcoholism. The mechanism provides that the ALDH2 gene's protective effect is also involved in dopamine metabolism. The interaction of the ALDH2 gene with neurotransmitters, such as dopamine,(More)
BACKGROUND β-Amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a major protein in the brain associated with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of macrophage antigen-1 (MAC1) receptor, an integrin scavenger receptor in microglia, and subsequent signaling events in mediating Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. We have previously reported(More)
BACKGROUND Several studies have hypothesized that genes involved in the dopamine system, including dopamine type-2 receptor (DRD2)-related TaqIA polymorphism and monoamine oxidase-A upstream variable number tandem repeat (uVNTR), may be associated with alcoholism. But their results were contradictory because of alcoholism's heterogeneity. Therefore, we(More)
BACKGROUND The free jejunal flap is a widely spread method of pharyngo-oesophageal reconstruction and can also be used in patients presenting with aspiration tendency following treatment for head and neck cancers or caustic injury of the upper aero-digestive tract to create a separate food pathway, the free jejunal diversionary conduit. METHODS Sixteen(More)