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BACKGROUND Much progress has been made in our understanding of brain regions and specific receptors that are involved in the action of cocaine addiction. Although long-term modifications of mesolimbic reward circuit following cocaine exposure are responsible for cocaine-addicted behaviors, the underlying molecular mechanism at the cellular level is still(More)
We have previously shown that retinoic acid (RA), a factor highly expressed in spinal cord, rapidly and specifically enhances the spontaneous acetylcholine release at developing neuromuscular synapses in Xenopus cell culture, using whole-cell patch-clamp recording. We have now further investigated the underlying mechanisms that are involved in RA-induced(More)
1. The rat lateral gastrocnemius muscle (LG) is a complex of four muscle compartments, each defined in terms of its unique innervation by a single primary nerve branch of the muscle nerve. A study has been made of the topographical distribution of motor units in the medial compartment of the LG (LGM) both before and after the loss of polyneuronal(More)
Although the long-term effects of all-trans retinoic acid (RA) on neuronal growth and differentiation have been intensively studied, nothing is known about its effect on synaptic transmission. Here we show that RA rapidly and specifically enhances the spontaneous acetylcholine release at developing neuromuscular synapses in Xenopus cell culture using(More)
1. The segmental innervation of the rat lateral gastrocnemius (l.g.) muscle is from lumbar nerves L4 and L5. A study has been made of changes in the innervation of the l.g. muscle by nerves L4 and L5 before and after removal of L4 during the loss of polyneuronal innervation which occurs over the first 2 weeks postnatal. 2. The rat l.g. muscle is a complex(More)
Although evidence suggests that insulin-like growth factor (IGF) plays an important role in the development and growth of the nervous system, the effect of IGF-1 in the regulation of neurotransmitter release in the peripheral nervous system remains unknown. Here we show that acute application of IGF-1, a factor widely expressed in developing myocytes,(More)
Potassium currents in calyciform nerve terminals of the avian ciliary ganglion were analyzed using a single microelectrode voltage clamp. The modulatory affects of adenosine on these currents was also determined. Intracellular CsCl (1 M) blocked the steady-state outward current, indicating that it is mostly carried by K+. Tetraethylammonium (TEA, 10 mM)(More)
1. The effects of adenosine on the probability of secretion of acetylcholine quanta and on presynaptic and postsynaptic action potentials was examined in the post-hatched avian ciliary ganglion. 2. Adenosine (20 microM) reduced the average size of the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) by 33%. This was due to a decrease in quantal content of the EPSP(More)
The mechanism of the action of beta-bungarotoxin (beta-BuTx) in the facilitation of spontaneous transmitter release at neuromuscular synapse was investigated in Xenopus cell culture using whole-cell patch clamp recording. Exposure of the culture to beta-BuTx dose-dependently enhances the frequency of spontaneous synaptic currents (SSCs). Buffering the rise(More)
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