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It is very common in an enterprise daily operation to solve Container Loading Problem (CLP). Especially, it is an important issue in the logistic management. The problem aims to determine the arrangement of objects with the best utilization ratio in a container. It belongs to the combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper, a two-phased method(More)
Legionella were detected with the direct DNA extraction method, Legionella culture method, and free-living amoebae (FLA) culture method from weak alkaline carbonate spring water in Taiwan. Moreover, we also investigated the existence of Acanthamoeba, Hartmannella, and Naegleria, ubiquitous FLA in aquatic environments, to identify the correlations between(More)
In the study, 52 spring water samples were collected from three hot spring recreation areas in northern Taiwan and Acanthamoebae were isolated from 11 samples (21.2%) on two hot spring recreation areas and mainly present in the hot spring water, hot tubs and wastewater. The most frequently identified Acanthamoeba genotype was T15, followed by T6, and then(More)
Naegleria is a free-living amoebae existing in soil and aquatic environments. Within the genus Naegleria, N. fowleri is most recognized as potential human pathogen causing primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Furthermore, the Naegleria spp. can serve as vehicles for facultative pathogens, such as Legionella. In this study, we identified Naegleria and(More)
Acanthamoeba species are free-living amoebae found in a range of environments. Within this genus, a number of species are recognized as human pathogens, potentially causing Acanthamoeba keratitis, granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, and chronic granulomatous lesions. In this study, 60 water samples were taken from four thermal spring recreation areas in(More)
Naegleria is a free-living amoeba. Pathogenic Naegleria may pose a health risk to people who come in contact with recreational waters. Here, we used Naegleria culture enrichment with PCR to identify the Naegleria species and investigated the distribution of Naegleria spp. in recreational waters including spring water, stream water and raw domestic water in(More)
PURPOSE The high incidences of waterborne diseases are frequently associated with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC). DEC may pose a health risk to people who contact surface water for recreation or domestic use. However, there is no published report on the monitoring of DEC in drinking water sources in Taiwan. In this study, the occurrence of DEC genes(More)
Some species of Legionella are recognized as opportunistic potential human pathogens, such as Legionella pneumophila, which causes legionnaires disease. Indeed, outbreaks of legionellosis are frequently reported in areas in which the organism has been spread via aerosols from contaminated institutional water systems. Contamination in hot tubs, spas and(More)
Both Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) are important human pathogens that are responsible for the majority of cases of endemic bacillary dysentery. However, they are difficult to identify and differentiate by biochemical tests or molecular methods alone. In this study, we developed a procedure to detect Shigella spp. and EIEC from(More)