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Cross-talk between TGF-␤ and IL-6 has been shown to direct the differentiation of CD4 ؉ cells into special IL-17-secreting cells, which are termed Th17 cells. In this study, we demonstrated that TGF-␤ and IL-6 could stimulate CD8 ؉ cells to differentiate into noncyto-toxic, IL-17-producing cells in MLC. These IL-17-producing CD8 ؉ cells exhibit a unique(More)
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are promising potential candidates for the treatment of immunological diseases because of their immunosuppressive functions. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate MSCs' immunosuppressive activity remain elusive. In this article, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, that secreted growth-regulated(More)
The major weaknesses of subunit vaccines are their low immunogenicity and poor efficacy. Adjuvants can help to overcome some of these inherent defects with subunit vaccines. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the newly developed water-in-oil-in-water multiphase emulsion system, termed PELC, in potentiating the protective capacity of dengue-1 envelope(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and with Coxsackie virus (CV) it is the other major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are urgently needed. From a scientific (the feasibility of bioprocess, immunological responses and potency in(More)
Cross-talk between TGF-beta and IL-6 has been shown to direct the differentiation of CD4(+) cells into special IL-17-secreting cells, which are termed Th17 cells. In this study, we demonstrated that TGF-beta and IL-6 could stimulate CD8(+) cells to differentiate into noncytotoxic, IL-17-producing cells in MLC. These IL-17-producing CD8(+) cells exhibit a(More)
The E7 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus (HPV) is an ideal target for developing immunotherapeutic strategies against HPV-associated tumors. However, because protein-based immunogens alone are poor elicitors of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses, they have been difficult to exploit for therapeutic purposes. In this study, we report that a(More)
BACKGROUND Antigen sparing and cross-protective immunity are regarded as crucial in pandemic influenza vaccine development. Both targets can be achieved by adjuvantation strategy to elicit a robust and broadened immune response. We assessed the immunogenicity of an inactivated H5N1 whole-virion vaccine (A/Vietnam/1194/2004 NIBRG-14, clade 1) formulated with(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth diseases (HFMDs), and EV71 is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia. Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are not available. The current results from mouse immunogenicity studies using in-house standardized RD(More)
To protect against dengue viral infection, a novel lipidated dengue subunit vaccine was rationally designed to contain the consensus amino acid sequences derived from four serotypes of dengue viruses. We found that the lipidated consensus dengue virus envelope protein domain III (LcED III) is capable of activating antigen-presenting cells and enhancing(More)
We have previously demonstrated that vaccination with a subunit dengue vaccine containing a consensus envelope domain III with aluminum phosphate elicits neutralizing antibodies against all four serotypes of dengue virus in mice. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity of the subunit dengue vaccine in non-human primates. After vaccination, monkeys(More)