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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) transcription complex, caused by intratumoural hypoxia, promotes tumour progression and metastasis, leading to treatment failure and mortality in different types of human cancers. The transcription factor TWIST is a master regulator of gastrulation and mesoderm-specification and was(More)
PURPOSE Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), like many solid tumors, contains a heterogeneous population of cancer cells. Recent data suggest that a rare subpopulation of cancer cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC), is capable of initiating, maintaining, and expanding the growth of tumor. Identification and characterization of CSC from OSCC facilitates the(More)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a critical process of cancer invasion and metastasis, is associated with stemness property of cancer cells. Though Oct4 and Nanog are homebox transcription factors essential to the self-renewal of stem cells and are expressed in several cancers, the role of Oct4/Nanog signaling in tumorigenesis is still elusive. Here(More)
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) has been considered to be a marker for cancer stem cells. However, the role of ALDH1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has yet to be determined. In this study, we isolated ALDH1-positive cells from HNSCC patients and showed that these HNSCC-ALDH1+ cells displayed radioresistance and represented a reservoir for(More)
CD133 (prominin-1), a 5-transmembrane glycoprotein, has recently been considered to be an important marker that represents the subset population of cancer stem-like cells. Herein we report the isolation of CD133-positive cells (LC-CD133(+)) and CD133-negative cells (LC-CD133(-)) from tissue samples of ten patients with non-small cell lung cancer (LC) and(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are endogenously expressed noncoding RNAs with important biological and pathological functions that are yet to be fully defined. This study investigated alterations in miRNA expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the incidence of which is rising throughout the world. Initial screening and subsequent analysis(More)
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is an extremely malignant neoplasm in the central nervous system (CNS) which occurs in infancy and childhood. Recent studies suggested that CD133 could be considered a marker for brain cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). However, the role of CD133 in AT/RT has never been investigated. Herein we report the isolation of(More)
Depression is accompanied by the activation of the inflammatory-response system, and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines may play a role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. Imipramine (IM), a tricyclic antidepressant drug, has recently been shown to promote neurogenesis and improve the survival rate of neurons in the hippocampus.(More)
BACKGROUND Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall associated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a potent antioxidant and a critical intermediate of the electron transport chain, has been reported to inhibit LDL oxidation and thus the progression of(More)