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Amantadine is commonly given to alleviate L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Animal and human evidence showed that amantadine may also exert neuroprotection in several neurological disorders. Additionally, it is generally believed that this neuroprotection results from the ability of amantadine to inhibit glutamatergic NMDA(More)
Memantine shows clinically relevant efficacy in patients with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Most in vivo and in vitro studies attribute the neuroprotective effects of memantine to the blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor on neurons. However, it cannot be excluded that mechanisms other than NMDA receptor blockade may contribute to(More)
BACKGROUND Several studies have hypothesized that genes involved in the dopamine system, including dopamine type-2 receptor (DRD2)-related TaqIA polymorphism and monoamine oxidase-A upstream variable number tandem repeat (uVNTR), may be associated with alcoholism. But their results were contradictory because of alcoholism's heterogeneity. Therefore, we(More)
Both (-) and (+)-naloxone attenuate inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration by inhibition of microglial activation through superoxide reduction in an opioid receptor-independent manner. Multiple lines of evidence have documented a pivotal role of overactivated NADPH oxidase (NOX2) in inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that NOX2 might(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation contributes to the etiology and progression of schizophrenia. Molecules that initiate inflammation, such as virus- and toxin-induced cytokines, are implicated in neuronal degeneration and schizophrenia-like behavior. Using therapeutic agents with anti-inflammatory or neurotrophic effects may be beneficial for(More)
Although the peripheral anti-inflammatory effect of norepinephrine (NE) is well documented, the mechanism by which this neurotransmitter functions as an anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system (CNS) is unclear. This article aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective effects and underlying mechanisms of NE in(More)
Regulatory mechanisms of the expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in brain inflammatory conditions remain elusive. To address this issue, we used multiple primary brain cell cultures to study the expression of IL-10 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-elicited inflammatory conditions. In neuron–glia cultures, LPS triggered well-orchestrated expression of various(More)
OBJECTIVE Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) is widely distributed in the peripheral and central nervous systems. BDNF and its gene polymorphism may be important in synaptic plasticity and neuron survival, and may become a key target in the physiopathology of several mental illnesses. To elucidate the role of BDNF, we compared the plasma BDNF levels(More)
OBJECTIVES Studies report high comorbidity of lifetime anxiety disorders with bipolar disorders in Western patients, but it is unclear in Taiwan. The authors explored the comorbidity of anxiety disorders in different bipolar disorder subtypes in Han Chinese in Taiwan. METHODS Three hundred twenty-five patients with bipolar disorder (bipolar I: 120;(More)
BACKGROUND Whether bipolar II disorder is a distinct disorder or simply a milder form of bipolar I disorder has been debated. Family, twin, and adoption studies provide robust evidence of genetic contributions to bipolar disorder, and heritable temperaments are also believed to contribute to the susceptibility to bipolar disorders. In this study, we sought(More)