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This paper describes a method for the enhancement of curvilinear structures such as vessels and bronchi in 3D medical images. A 3D line enhancement lter is developed with the aim of discriminating line structures from other structures and recovering line structures of various widths. The 3D line lter is based on a combination of the eigenvalues of the 3D(More)
This paper describes a method for the enhancement of curvilinear structures such as vessels and bronchi in three-dimensional (3-D) medical images. A 3-D line enhancement filter is developed with the aim of discriminating line structures from other structures and recovering line structures of various widths. The 3-D line filter is based on a combination of(More)
Controlling osteoclastogenesis is critical to maintain physiological bone homeostasis and prevent skeletal disorders. Although signaling activating nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1), a transcription factor essential for osteoclastogenesis, has been intensively investigated, factors antagonistic to NFATc1 in osteoclasts have not been(More)
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in a specific bone marrow (BM) niche in cavities formed by osteoclasts. Osteoclast-deficient mice are osteopetrotic and exhibit closed BM cavities. Osteoclast activity is inversely correlated with hematopoietic activity; however, how osteoclasts and the BM cavity potentially regulate hematopoiesis is not well(More)
Although both an active form of the vitamin D metabolite, 1,25(OH)2D3, and the vitamin D analogue, ED71 have been used to treat osteoporosis, anti-bone resorbing activity is reportedly seen only in ED71- but not in 1,25(OH)2D3 -treated patients. In addition, how ED71 inhibits osteoclast activity in patients has not been fully characterized. Recently, HIF1α(More)
The promoter region of the liver/bone/ kidney-type alkaline phosphatase gene was examined to define the cis-acting regulatory sequences and transcription factors responsible for its expression in hematopoietic cells. Transient transfection experiments revealed that regions deleted up to -154 base pairs upstream from the transcription initiation site had(More)
Bone homeostasis is maintained as a delicate balance between bone-resorption and bone-formation, which are coupled to maintain appropriate bone mass. A critical question is how bone-resorption is terminated to allow bone-formation to occur. Here, we show that TGFβs inhibit osteoclastogenesis and maintain bone-mass through Smad4 activity in osteoclasts. We(More)
We investigated the distribution of neutral endopeptidase (NEP; EC 3.4.24.11) activity, a possible regulatory enzyme for neuropeptide-induced leukocyte activations, in each cell type of human blood leukocytes. The NEP activity assessed by an NEP inhibitor phosphoramidon-sensitive Met5-enkephalin degrading activity was present in neutrophils and the common(More)
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