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MOTIVATION Gene expression profile analyses have been used in numerous studies covering a broad range of areas in biology. When unreliable measurements are excluded, missing values are introduced in gene expression profiles. Although existing multivariate analysis methods have difficulty with the treatment of missing values, this problem has received little(More)
BACKGROUND Individual human carcinomas have distinct biological and clinical properties: gene-expression profiling is expected to unveil the underlying molecular features. Particular interest has been focused on potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Solid tumors, such as colorectal carcinoma, present additional obstacles for experimental and(More)
Multiclass classification is one of the fundamental tasks in bioinformatics and typically arises in cancer diagnosis studies by gene expression profiling. There have been many studies of aggregating binary classifiers to construct a multiclass classifier based on one-versus-the-rest (1R), one-versus-one (11), or other coding strategies, as well as some(More)
The detection of rare mutants using next generation sequencing has considerable potential for diagnostic applications. Detecting circulating tumor DNA is the foremost application of this approach. The major obstacle to its use is the high read error rate of next-generation sequencers. Rather than increasing the accuracy of final sequences, we detected rare(More)
The number of vertebrae is defined strictly for a given species and depends on the number of somites, which are the earliest metameric structures that form in development. Somites are formed by sequential segmentation. The periodicity of somite segmentation is orchestrated by the synchronous oscillation of gene expression in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM),(More)
Conventional confocal and two-photon microscopy scan the field of view sequentially with single-point laser illumination. This raster-scanning method constrains video speeds to tens of frames per second, which are too slow to capture the temporal patterns of fast electrical events initiated by neurons. Nipkow-type spinning-disk confocal microscopy resolves(More)
Expression of Mash1 is dysregulated in human neuroblastoma. We have also reported that LMO3 (LIM-only protein 3) has an oncogenic potential in collaboration with neuronal transcription factor HEN2 in neuroblastoma. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of its transcriptional regulation remain elusive. Here we found that LMO3 forms a complex with HEN2(More)
For practical brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), electroencephalography (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are the only current methods that are non-invasive and available in non-laboratory environments. However, the use of EEG and NIRS involves certain inherent problems. EEG signals are generally a mixture of neural activity from broad areas, some(More)
BACKGROUND Genotyping of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) mutations is indispensable for making therapeutic decisions regarding whether to use EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for lung cancer. Because some cases might pose challenges for biopsy, noninvasive genotyping of EGFR in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) would be beneficial for lung cancer(More)
BACKGROUND Although microscopic diagnosis has been playing the decisive role in cancer diagnostics, there have been cases in which it does not satisfy the clinical need. Differential diagnosis of malignant and benign thyroid tissues is one such case, and supplementary diagnosis such as that by gene expression profile is expected. RESULTS With four thyroid(More)