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MOTIVATION Gene expression profile analyses have been used in numerous studies covering a broad range of areas in biology. When unreliable measurements are excluded, missing values are introduced in gene expression profiles. Although existing multivariate analysis methods have difficulty with the treatment of missing values, this problem has received little(More)
BACKGROUND Individual human carcinomas have distinct biological and clinical properties: gene-expression profiling is expected to unveil the underlying molecular features. Particular interest has been focused on potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Solid tumors, such as colorectal carcinoma, present additional obstacles for experimental and(More)
The detection of rare mutants using next generation sequencing has considerable potential for diagnostic applications. Detecting circulating tumor DNA is the foremost application of this approach. The major obstacle to its use is the high read error rate of next-generation sequencers. Rather than increasing the accuracy of final sequences, we detected rare(More)
Neuroblastoma shows complex patterns of genetic aberrations including MYCN amplification, deletion of chromosome 1p or 11q, and gain of chromosome 17q. The 17q gain is frequently observed in high-risk neuroblastomas, however, the candidate genes still remain elusive. In the present study, we integrated the data of comparative genomic hybridization of 236(More)
The number of vertebrae is defined strictly for a given species and depends on the number of somites, which are the earliest metameric structures that form in development. Somites are formed by sequential segmentation. The periodicity of somite segmentation is orchestrated by the synchronous oscillation of gene expression in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM),(More)
To predict the prognosis of neuroblastoma patients and choose a better therapeutic protocol, we developed a cDNA microarray carrying 5340 genes obtained from primary neuroblastomas and examined 136 tumor samples. We made a probabilistic output statistical classifier that provided a high accuracy in prognosis prediction (89% at 5 years) and a highly reliable(More)
Multiclass classification is one of the fundamental tasks in bioinformatics and typically arises in cancer diagnosis studies by gene expression profiling. There have been many studies of aggregating binary classifiers to construct a multiclass classifier based on one-versus-the-rest (1R), one-versus-one (11), or other coding strategies, as well as some(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a very poor prognosis, due to the high incidence of tumor recurrence. As the current morphological indicators are often insufficient for therapeutic decisions, we sought to identify additional biologic indicators for early recurrence. METHODS We analyzed gene expression using a PCR-based array of 3,072(More)
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is an emerging field of cancer research. For lung cancer, non-invasive genotyping of EGFR is the foremost application. The activating mutations represent the ctDNA from all cancer cells, and the T790M-resistant mutation represents that from resistant cells. We examined the ctDNA dynamics of EGFR mutations by using deep(More)
Conventional confocal and two-photon microscopy scan the field of view sequentially with single-point laser illumination. This raster-scanning method constrains video speeds to tens of frames per second, which are too slow to capture the temporal patterns of fast electrical events initiated by neurons. Nipkow-type spinning-disk confocal microscopy resolves(More)