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The mTORC1 kinase promotes growth in response to growth factors, energy levels, and amino acids, and its activity is often deregulated in disease. The Rag GTPases interact with mTORC1 and are proposed to activate it in response to amino acids by promoting mTORC1 translocation to a membrane-bound compartment that contains the mTORC1 activator, Rheb. We show(More)
In producing mutant mice by gene-targeting and gene-trapping in embryonic stem (ES) cells, the efficient colonization of the mutant ES cells into germline is still a critical matter. We have established a new line of ES cells, TT2, from an F1 embryo between a C57BL/6 female and a CBA male. When the TT2 cells were injected into blastocysts, the colonization(More)
In producing mutant mice by gene targeting in embryonic stem (ES) cells, the efficient isolation of the homologous recombinants is still a critical step. We previously reported on a negative selection using the diphtheria toxin A (DT-A) fragment gene for homologous recombinants (1). It was efficient but limited to gene loci expressed in ES cells. For wider(More)
The functions of src family protein-tyrosine kinases are thought to be regulated negatively by the phosphorylation of highly conserved tyrosine residues close to their carboxyl termini. Recently we have purified and cloned a protein-tyrosine kinase (designated as CSK) that can specifically phosphorylate the negative regulatory site of p60c-src. To elucidate(More)
CD151, one of the tetraspanins, forms a stable complex with integrin alpha3beta1, the major laminin receptor on the cell surface. We found that 8C3, an anti-CD151 mAb obtained by screening for reactivity with integrin alpha3beta1-CD151 complexes, was capable of dissociating CD151 from integrin alpha3beta1, thereby allowing us to deplete CD151 from purified(More)
The tyrosine kinase c-Src is upregulated in various human cancers irrespective of its negative regulator Csk, but the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that a lipid raft-anchored Csk adaptor, Cbp/PAG, is directly involved in controlling the oncogenicity of c-Src. Using Csk-deficient cells that can be transformed by c-Src overexpression, we(More)
The Src family of protein tyrosine kinases (Src-PTKs) is important in the regulation of growth and differentiation of eukaryotic cells. The activity of Src-PTKs in cells of different types is negatively controlled by Csk, which specifically phosphorylates a conserved regulatory tyrosine residue at the carboxy-terminal tail of the Src-PTKs. Csk is mainly(More)
Cbp, a C-terminal Src kinase (Csk)-binding protein, is a transmembrane phosphoprotein that has been implicated in the regulation of the Src family kinase (SFK) through recruiting Csk, a negative regulator of SFK, to a membrane microdomain of lipid rafts. To examine the contribution of Cbp to cell adhesion signaling mediated by SFK, we investigated the(More)
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a kinase that plays a key role in a wide array of cellular processes and exists in two distinct functional complexes, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). Although mTORC2 is primarily activated by growth factors, mTORC1 is regulated by numerous extracellular and intracellular signals such as nutrients,(More)
Csk is a novel cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase that has been shown to inactivate members of the Src family of protein-tyrosine kinases in vitro. To examine the function of Csk in vivo, Csk-deficient mouse embryos were generated by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. These embryos were developmentally arrested at the 10 to 12 somite stage and(More)