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Previous studies have demonstrated that the spike patterns of cortical neurons vary systematically as a function of sound-source location such that the response of a single neuron can signal the location of a sound source throughout 360 degrees of azimuth. The present study examined specific features of spike patterns that might transmit information related(More)
We examined the coding of sound-source location by ensembles of neurons in the auditory cortex. Broadband noise bursts were presented from loudspeakers throughout 360 degrees in the horizontal plane. Sound levels varied from 20 to 40 dB above neural thresholds. We recorded temporal spike patterns simultaneously at 16 recording sites in area A2 of(More)
The present study measured the head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) of the Mongolian gerbil for various sound-source directions, and explored acoustical cues for sound localization that could be available to the animals. The HRTF exhibited spectral notches for frequencies above 25 kHz. The notch frequency varied systematically with source direction, and(More)
We examined the representation of stimulus center frequencies by the distribution of cortical activity. Recordings were made from the primary auditory cortex (area A1) of ketamine-anesthetized guinea pigs. Cortical images of tones and noise bands were visualized as the simultaneously recorded spike activity of neurons at 16 sites along the tonotopic(More)
Efforts to locate a cortical map of auditory space generally have proven unsuccessful. At moderate sound levels, cortical neurons generally show large or unbounded spatial receptive fields. Within those large receptive fields, however, changes in sound location result in systematic changes in the temporal firing patterns such that single-neuron firing(More)
We have demonstrated that the spike patterns of auditory cortical neurons carry information about sound-source location in azimuth. The question arises as to whether those units integrate the multiple acoustical cues that signal the location of a sound source or whether they merely demonstrate sensitivity to a specific parameter that covaries with(More)
The present study examined cortical parallels to psychophysical signal detection and sound localization in the presence of background noise. The activity of single units or of small clusters of units was recorded in cortical area A2 of chloralose-anesthetized cats. Signals were 80-ms click trains that varied in location in the horizontal plane around the(More)
Sound localization in the horizontal plane is mainly determined by interaural time differences (ITD) and interaural level differences (ILD). Both cues result in an estimate of sound source location and in many real-life situations these two cues are roughly congruent. When stimulating listeners with headphones it is possible to counterbalance the two cues,(More)
Although physiological studies have revealed segregated binaural pathways, namely the medial and lateral superior olives, it is unclear whether the human auditory system has separate mechanisms for different cue types (interaural time and intensity differences; ITD and IID, respectively) and for operating frequency ranges. This study hypothesized "channels"(More)
Humans and cats can localize a sound source accurately if its spectrum is fairly broad and flat, as is typical of most natural sounds. However, if sounds are filtered to reduce the width of the spectrum, they result in illusions of sources that are very different from the actual locations, particularly in the up/down and front/back dimensions. Such(More)