Shigeru Toki

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A number of clinical studies in which early adversities were defined retrospectively, demonstrated that early adverse experiences increased the morbidity rate of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in later life. However, no prospective studies have yet been conducted to elucidate whether early adversity affects the risk or severity of PTSD. Thus, we(More)
UNLABELLED Pain is a multidimensional phenomenon. Previous psychological studies have shown that a person's subjective pain threshold can change when certain emotions are recognized. We examined this association with magnetoencephalography. Magnetic field strength was recorded with a 306-channel neuromagnetometer while 19 healthy subjects (7 female, 12(More)
In general, emotion is known to enhance memory processes. However, the effect of emotion on associative memory and the underling neural mechanisms remains largely unexplored. In this study, we explored brain activation during an associative memory task that involved the encoding and retrieval of word and face pairs. The word and face pairs consisted of(More)
We studied the neural activation associated with anticipations of emotional pictures using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) by directly comparing certain with uncertain anticipation conditions. While being scanned with fMRI, healthy participants (n=18) were cued to anticipate and then perceive emotional stimuli having predictable (i.e., certain)(More)
Diagnosis of psychiatric disorders based on brain imaging data is highly desirable in clinical applications. However, a common problem in applying machine learning algorithms is that the number of imaging data dimensions often greatly exceeds the number of available training samples. Furthermore, interpretability of the learned classifier with respect to(More)
BACKGROUND The judgment of the approachability of others based on their facial appearance often precedes social interaction. Whether we ultimately approach or avoid others may depend on such judgments. METHOD We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural basis for such approachability judgments and the relationship between these(More)
BACKGROUND A few studies have used pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) to assess the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, rCBF changes during treatment with escitalopram have not been studied in detail. We used pCASL to investigate the effect of 6-week escitalopram treatment on the rCBF(More)
BACKGROUND It is known that the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder are affected by interactions between a number of factors. This study investigated how childhood abuse, personality, and stress of life events were associated with symptoms of depression in depressed people. METHODS Patients with major depressive disorder (N =(More)