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In the primary visual cortex of higher mammals, orientation preferences are represented continuously except for singular points, so-called pinwheel centers. In spite of the uniqueness of orientation pinwheel centers, very little is known about the pattern of their arrangement. In this study we examined the arrangement of orientation pinwheel centers in the(More)
The visual cortex contains regular arrangements of neurons responding to specific types of visual stimulation, such as ocular dominance columns and orientation columns. These columnar structures can be considered as the functional architecture for early visual information processing. The model of activity-dependent self-organization reported here(More)
We investigate what computational mechanisms give rise to the nonlinearity of complex cell responses in the primary visual cortex. Complex cells are characterized by their nonlinear spatial properties such as spatial phase invariance and nonlinear spatial additivity. We carried out network simulations to estimate the second-order Wiener-like kernels for(More)
The arrest of meiotic prophase in mouse oocytes within antral follicles requires the G protein G(s) and an orphan member of the G protein-coupled receptor family, GPR3. To determine whether GPR3 activates G(s), the localization of Galpha(s) in follicle-enclosed oocytes from Gpr3(+/+) and Gpr3(-/-) mice was compared by using immunofluorescence and(More)
A neuroecological equation of the Lotka-Volterra type for mean firing rate is derived from the conventional membrane dynamics of a neural network with lateral inhibition and self-inhibition. Neural selection mechanisms employed by the competitive neural network receiving external inputs are studied with analytic and numerical calculations. A remarkable(More)
Several studies have suggested that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a role in ischemic neuronal death. Genetic disruption of COX-2 has been shown to reduce susceptibility to focal ischemic injury and N-methyl-d-aspartate-mediated neurotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of COX-2 deficiency on neuronal vulnerability after transient(More)
To elucidate the effect of visual experience on the development of orientation maps, we conducted intrinsic signal optical imaging of the visual cortex of kittens that were continuously exposed to a single orientation through cylindrical-lens-fitted goggles under a freely moving condition starting at post-natal week 3. We observed a rapid reorganization of(More)
Cyclic AMP regulates multiple neuronal functions, including neurite outgrowth and axonal regeneration. GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12 make up a family of constitutively active G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that share greater than 50% identity and 65% similarity at the amino acid level. They are highly expressed in the central nervous system, and their(More)