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Carbonaceous aerosols and PM10 were monitored from September 8 to November 30, 2002, in a semi-urban site (Tsinghua University) in Beijing. Daily concentrations of OC and EC ranged from 7.1 to 65.9 microgCm(-3) and from 1.3 to 26.1 microgCm(-3), with the overall average concentrations of 21.2 microgCm(-3) and 7.3 microgCm(-3), respectively. The diurnal(More)
A neuroecological equation of the Lotka-Volterra type for mean firing rate is derived from the conventional membrane dynamics of a neural network with lateral inhibition and self-inhibition. Neural selection mechanisms employed by the competitive neural network receiving external inputs are studied with analytic and numerical calculations. A remarkable(More)
To elucidate the effect of visual experience on the development of orientation maps, we conducted intrinsic signal optical imaging of the visual cortex of kittens that were continuously exposed to a single orientation through cylindrical-lens-fitted goggles under a freely moving condition starting at post-natal week 3. We observed a rapid reorganization of(More)
We investigate what computational mechanisms give rise to the nonlinearity of complex cell responses in the primary visual cortex. Complex cells are characterized by their nonlinear spatial properties such as spatial phase invariance and nonlinear spatial additivity. We carried out network simulations to estimate the second-order Wiener-like kernels for(More)
This paper describes the daily concentrations of trace metals and ionic constituents in the aerosol of Beijing, China from March 2001 to August 2003. Daily PM10 concentrations were also measured from September 2001 to August 2003. The daily average PM10 concentration at Beijing, China from September 2001 to August 2003 was 171+/-117 microg m(-3) (n = 673),(More)
Orientation selectivity of primary visual cortical neurons is an important requisite for shape perception. Although numerous studies have been previously devoted to a question of how orientation selectivity is established and elaborated in early life, how the susceptibility of orientation plasticity to visual experience changes in time remains unclear. In(More)