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An exquisitely preserved troodontid theropod with new information on the palatal structure from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia
TLDR
The palatal configuration suggests that the skull of Gobivenator would have been akinetic but had already acquired prerequisites for later evolution of cranial kinesis in birds, such as the loss of the epipterygoid and reduction in contact areas among bones.
Tool-set for termite-fishing by chimpanzees in the Ndoki forest, Congo
TLDR
Chimpanzees in the Ndoki forest seem to be able to obtain termitcs from the deep subterranean nest throughout the year by using their tool-set, and this newly described behavior shows that chimpanzees habitually manipulate a tool on an object which they previously modified with another type of tool.
A new specimen of Shuvuuia deserti Chiappe et al., 1998, from the Mongolian Late Cretaceous with a discussion of the relationships of alvarezsaurids to other theropod dinosaurs
TLDR
A critical evaluation of the character evidence in support of the ornithomimoid affiliation of the alvarezsaurid mononykine theropod Shuvuuia deserti is provided and it is demonstrated that the evidence insupport of this latter hypothesis is largely unsubstantiated.
A new Enantiornithine bird from the Late Cretaceous of the Gobi desert
TLDR
The combination of phylogeny and functional interpretation suggests that this new fossil bird is a representative of a flightless lineage, providing the first evidence of a trend towards more limited flying capabilities among Enantiornithes, a group of Cretaceous birds otherwise believed to be represented by competent fliers.
Reproduction of wild Japanese macaque females of Yakushima and Kinkazan Islands: A preliminary report
TLDR
Wild Japanese macaque females of the Yakushima and Kinkazan populations exhibited similar reproductive features, but the survivorship for female juveniles was lower than that for male juveniles in Yakushima, whereas the survivoration for male youngsters in Kinkingazan was higher than those of provisioned troops.
Cranial Osteology of a Juvenile Specimen of Tarbosaurus bataar (Theropoda, Tyrannosauridae) from the Nemegt Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of Bugin Tsav, Mongolia
TLDR
This juvenile specimen suggests that T. bataar would have changed its dietary niches during ontogeny, and the numbers of alveoli in the maxilla and dentary are the same as those in adults, suggesting that they do not change onto genetically in T. Bataar and thus are not consistent with the hypothesis that the number ofAlveoli decreases ontogenetically in tyrannosaurids.
Aggressive intergroup encounters in two populations of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)
TLDR
It is concluded that intergroup relationships reflect the mate guarding behavior by group males and the agonistic relationship during non-mating season, especially that of among females, is also consistent with the food competition model.
Do the old aged females experience a long post-reproductive life span?: The cases of Japanese macaques and chimpanzees
TLDR
The average time lag between the last parturition and the disappearance/death was 6.0 years for the Japanese macaque females that survived at least to the age of 20 years in the Arashiyama B troop, which may correspond to the “post-reproductive life span (PRLS),” which occupied about 16% of the average span of their lives (27.3 years).
Troop extinction and fusion in wild Japanese macaques of Yakushima Island, Japan
A wild Japanese macaque troop decreased in size because the birth rate dropped and infant mortality increased. In the 1989 mating season, the last male left the troop, and the remaining two females
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