The family Arenaviridae, genus Arenavirus, consists of two phylogenetically independent groups: Old World (OW) and New World (NW) complexes. The Lassa and Lujo viruses in the OW complex and the Guanarito, Junin, Machupo, Sabia, and Chapare viruses in the NW complex cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans, leading to serious public health concerns.… (More)
BACKGROUND Ebola viruses cause viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates and are endemic in Africa. Reston ebolavirus (REBOV) has caused several epizootics in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) but is not associated with any human disease. In late 2008, REBOV infections were identified in swine for the first time in the Philippines. … (More)
To the Editor: Filoviruses cause highly lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, except for Reston Ebolavirus (REBOV), which causes severe hemorrhagic fever in macaques (1,2). REBOV epizootics among African fruit bats have been suggested to be natural reservoirs for Zaire Ebolavirus and Marburg virus (4–6). However, the natural reservoir of… (More)
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is resistant to conventional chemotherapy. We examined the in vitro effects of capsaicin, the principal ingredients of red pepper, on three ATL cell lines. Capsaicin treatment inhibited the growth of ATL cells both in dose- and time-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect was… (More)
Fifty-two bats captured during July 2008 in the Philippines were tested by reverse transcription-PCR to detect bat coronavirus (CoV) RNA. The overall prevalence of virus RNA was 55.8%. We found 2 groups of sequences that belonged to group 1 (genus Alphacoronavirus) and group 2 (genus Betacoronavirus) CoVs. Phylogenetic analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA… (More)
A method for the isolation of genomic fragments of RNA virus based on cDNA representational difference analysis (cDNA RDA) was developed. cDNA RDA has been applied for the subtraction of poly(A)(+) RNAs but not for poly(A)(-) RNAs, such as RNA virus genomes, owing to the vast quantity of ribosomal RNAs. We constructed primers for inefficient reverse… (More)
We developed a system for rapid determination of viral RNA sequences whereby genomic sequence is obtained from cultured virus isolates without subcloning into plasmid vectors. This method affords new opportunities to address the challenges of unknown or untypeable emerging viruses.
M. genavense infections occur only rarely in persons other than AIDS patients (as in the present case), but they always occur in immunocom-promised persons (7,8). To date, only 1 case of disseminated infection has been reported in a solid-organ (kidney) transplant recipient; the diagnosis was made by molecular iden-tifi cation in isolates from blood and… (More)
Because bats are associated with emerging zoonoses, identification and characterization of novel viruses from bats is needed. Using a modified rapid determination system for viral RNA/DNA sequences, we identified a novel bat betaherpesvirus 2 not detected by herpesvirus consensus PCR. This modified system is useful for detecting unknown viruses.
The recent emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV. It spread rapidly to many countries and developing a SARS vaccine is now urgently required. In order to study the immunogenicity of UV-inactivated purified SARS-CoV virion as a vaccine candidate, we subcutaneously immunized mice with UV-inactivated… (More)