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Delirium occurs in 23% of sepsis patients, in which pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide are suggested to be involved. However, in animal experiments, even a subseptic dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection induces both pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the brain, suggesting that the brain oxidative reaction can be(More)
The expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) mRNA was compared in the brain of inflammatory susceptible LEW/N and resistant F344/N rats at 3, 6, and 12 h after peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline. No differences between strains were observed in the circumventricular organs (CVOs) and choroid plexus. At 12 h after LPS(More)
Iron is known to be involved in neuronal diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, brain ischemia and epilepsy. However, it is unclear if a high level of peripheral iron induces these pathological conditions. Since ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA), a low molecule iron chelate, causes kidney carcinoma and diabetes in animals due to its strong and unique(More)
BACKGROUND Clonidine, an alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist, is a common adjunct in both central and peripheral blocks. Dexmedetomidine, a more selective alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist, is also known to enhance central neural blockades. Its peripheral effect, however, has not been fully elucidated. Thus, we evaluated the effect of dexmedetomidine and other alpha-2(More)
Propofol and midazolam have a synergistic anesthetic action. One of the reasons for this is thought to be the inhibitory effect of propofol on midazolam metabolism. However, because both drugs bind strongly to serum protein, their interaction may not only involve the effects of propofol on midazolam metabolism, but may also involve propofol's effects on(More)
We encountered three patients with trigeminal neuralgia-like paroxysmal pain in the buccal nerve region. In all cases, paroxysmal pain was felt spreading to the receptive field of the ipsilateral buccal nerve, and clear tenderness was observed during intraoral palpation at the inner side of the mandibular ramus where the temporalis muscle runs and attaches.(More)
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to identify independent factors associated with prolonged recovery time after intravenous sedation for dental treatment in patients with intellectual disabilities. Methods : This study was designed as a prospective cohort study. Participants were patients with intellectual disabilities, for whom sedation for dental(More)
Recent studies showed that the administration of dexmedetomidine relieved hyperalgesia in the presence of neuropathic pain. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the local administration of dexmedetomidine is useful for relieving acute inflammatory nociception, such as postoperative pain. Thus, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of locally injected(More)
Teeth are fundamental to maintaining good quality of life, but are often lost prematurely in individuals with intellectual disability. Furthermore, since bone mass decreases in menopausal women, women with intellectual disability have an augmented risk of losing their teeth. However, the relationship between periodontal disease-related tooth loss and bone(More)