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Malonyl-CoA functions as a mediator in the hypothalamic sensing of energy balance and regulates the neural physiology that governs feeding behavior and energy expenditure. The central administration of C75, a potent inhibitor of the fatty acid synthase (FAS), increases malonyl-CoA concentration in the hypothalamus and suppresses food intake while activating(More)
An enzyme that has both beta-1,4-glucanase and chitosanase activities was found in the culture medium of the soil bacterium Lysobacter sp. IB-9374, a high lysyl endopeptidase-producing strain. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate using five purification steps and designated Cel8A. The purified Cel8A had a molecular mass of 41(More)
The key regulatory step in CoA biosynthesis in bacteria and mammals is pantothenate kinase (CoaA), which governs the intracellular concentration of CoA through feedback regulation by CoA and its thioesters. CoaA from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCoaA) has a distinct primary sequence that is more similar to the mammalian pantothenate kinases than the(More)
Previous investigations show that intracerebroventricular administration of a potent inhibitor of fatty acid synthase, C75, increases the level of its substrate, malonyl-CoA, in the hypothalamus. The "malonyl-CoA signal" is rapidly transmitted to skeletal muscle by the sympathetic nervous system, increasing fatty acid oxidation, uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3)(More)
The American diet, especially that of adolescents, contains highly palatable foods of high-energy content and large amounts of high-fructose sweeteners. These factors are believed to contribute to the obesity epidemic and insulin resistance. Previous investigations revealed that the central metabolism of glucose suppresses food intake mediated by the(More)
Previous studies showed that i.p. administration of C75, a potent inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS), blocked fasting-induced up-regulation of orexigenic neuropeptides and down-regulation of anorexigenic neuropeptides in the hypothalami of mice. As a result, food intake and body weight were drastically reduced. Here we provide evidence supporting the(More)
Hypothalamic malonyl-CoA has been shown to function in global energy homeostasis by modulating food intake and energy expenditure. Little is known, however, about the regulation of malonyl-CoA concentration in the central nervous system. To address this issue we investigated the response of putative intermediates in the malonyl-CoA pathway to metabolic and(More)
Intracellular levels of three coenzyme A (CoA) molecular species, i.e., nonesterified CoA (CoASH), acetyl-CoA, and malonyl-CoA, in a variety of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were analyzed by the acyl-CoA cycling method developed by us. It was demonstrated that there was an intrinsic difference between aerobes and facultative anaerobes in the(More)
A new lysyl endopeptidase producing strain, Lysobacter sp. IB-9374, was isolated from soil. This strain secreted the endopeptidase to culture medium at 6-12-fold higher levels relative to Achromobacter lyticus and Lysobacter enzymogenes. The mature Lysobacter sp. enzyme was enzymatically identical to Achromobacter lysyl endopeptidase bearing lysyl bond(More)
Acetate is activated to acetyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (AceCS2), a mitochondrial enzyme. Here, we report that the activation of acetate by AceCS2 has a specific and unique role in thermogenesis during fasting. In the skeletal muscle of fasted AceCS2(-/-) mice, ATP levels were reduced by 50% compared to AceCS2(+/+) mice. Fasted AceCS2(-/-) mice were(More)