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Many accessions (ecotypes) of Arabidopsis have been collected. Although few differences exist among their nucleotide sequences, these subtle differences induce large genetic variation in phenotypic traits such as stress tolerance and flowering time. To understand the natural variability in salt tolerance, large-scale soil pot experiments were performed to(More)
Appropriate resources and expression technology necessary for human proteomics on a whole-proteome scale are being developed. We prepared a foundation for simple and efficient production of human proteins using the versatile Gateway vector system. We generated 33,275 human Gateway entry clones for protein synthesis, developed mRNA expression protocols for(More)
When bone is loaded, substrate strain is generated by the external force and this strain induces fluid flow that creates fluid shear stress on bone cells. Our current understanding of load-driven gene regulation of osteoblasts is based primarily on in vitro studies on planer two-dimensional tissue culture substrates. However, differences between a flat(More)
BACKGROUND Thellungiella halophila (also known as Thellungiella salsuginea) is a model halophyte with a small plant size, short life cycle, and small genome. It easily undergoes genetic transformation by the floral dipping method used with its close relative, Arabidopsis thaliana. Thellungiella genes exhibit high sequence identity (approximately 90% at the(More)
We employed a comparative genomic approach to understand protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C)-mediated abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) abi1-1, a dominant mutant allele of ABI1 encoding a PP2C involved in the negative regulation of ABA signaling, caused ABA insensitivity of P.(More)
There is an increasing demand for easy, high-throughput (HTP) methods for protein engineering to support advances in the development of structural biology, bioinformatics and drug design. Here, we describe an N- and C-terminal cloning method utilizing Gateway cloning technology that we have adopted for chimeric and mutant genes production as well as domain(More)
MHC class I-restricted CD8 ؉ T cells are a crucial component of the host defense against mycobacterial infection in mice, but it has often proved very difficult to identify the CD8 T cell response in humans. Human group 1 CD1 molecules (CD1a,-b,-c) mediate MHC-independent presentation of mycobacteria-derived lipid and glycolipid Ags to CD8 ؉ T cells, and(More)
BACKGROUND Bone alters its architecture and mass in response to the mechanical environment, and thus varying loading modalities have been examined for studying load-driven bone formation. The current study aimed to evaluate the anabolic effects of knee loading on diaphyseal cortical bone in the femur. METHODS Using a custom-made piezoelectric loader,(More)
BACKGROUND Thellungiella halophila (also known as T. salsuginea) is a model halophyte with a small size, short life cycle, and small genome. Thellungiella genes exhibit a high degree of sequence identity with Arabidopsis genes (90% at the cDNA level). We previously generated a full-length enriched cDNA library of T. halophila from various tissues and from(More)
The effect of mechanical stimulation on osteogenesis remains controversial, especially with respect to the loading frequency that maximizes osteogenesis. Mechanical stimulation at an optimized frequency may be beneficial for the bone tissue regeneration to promote osteoblastic calcification. The objective of this study was to investigate the(More)