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When distinguishing whether a face displays a certain emotion, some regions of the face may contain more useful information than others. Here we ask whether people differentially attend to distinct regions of a face when judging different emotions. Experiment 1 measured eye movements while participants discriminated between emotional (joy, anger, fear,(More)
Fallen logs on the forest floor play an important role in tree seedling establishment in boreal and subalpine old-growth forests. We examined the abundance and state (degree of decay, moss coverage on their surfaces) of fallen logs on the forest floor and compared the occurrence of conifer seedlings and saplings on soil and fallen logs in old-growth(More)
Temperate deciduous forests in Monsoon Asia are classified into three forest types which differ in floristic composition, dynamics and disturbance regime. The cool temperate mixed deciduous broadleaf/conifer forest, dominated by Quercus spp. (mainly Q. mongolica or Q. crispula) and conifers, is distributed in northern parts of the temperate zone. The cool(More)
We determined the role of bird dispersal in seed and seedling dynamics of the tree Kalopanax pictus from 7 years of observing seed rain and seedling emergence in a broad-leaved deciduous forest in central Japan. We also performed an experiment on the influence of seed pulp on germination of seeds of K. pictus. Seeds of this species can lie dormant for(More)
Although enhancing reserve shape has been suggested as an alternative to enlarging nature reserves, the importance of reserve shape relative to reserve area remains unclear. Here we examined the relative importance of area and shape of forest patches to species richness, species composition, and species abundance (abundance of each species) for 3 taxa (33(More)
Population structure and ecological characteristics of component species of a riparian Ulmus-Quercus forest in central Japan were analyzed with special reference to riparian disturbance regime. Though the dbh distribution of the whole community was L-shaped, those of several component tree populations had several modes, suggesting intermittent regeneration(More)
Transported distance and mortality of acorns scattered by rodents were investigated with magnets inserted into acorns (40 of Quercus serrata and 20 of Quercus acutissima) and a magnetic locator in a natural forest stand. All the treated acorns were transported, and 60% of them were discovered again with a magnetic locator from autumn to the next spring.(More)
We analyzed the genetic variation in Potamogeton anguillanus Koidz. and its putative parents, P. malaianus Miq. and P. perfoliatus L., at five allozyme loci of four enzymes to test the hypothesis of a hybrid origin for P. anguillanus, collected in Lake Biwa, Japan. Alleles diagnostic for either P. malaianus or P. perfoliatus were present at four loci. Of 13(More)
Plant species richness of twenty old-growth forest reserves in the cool-temperate zone in the Kanto region, Japan were investigated to detect the effect of forest fragmentation. The species richness of trees and forest floor plants were analyzed by multiple regression models relating to nine variables on the characteristics of landscape, local habitat and(More)
Although species with large area requirements are sometimes used as umbrella species, their general utility as conservation tools is uncertain. We surveyed the species diversity of birds, butterflies, carabids, and forest-floor plants in forest sites across an area (1,600 km2) in which we delineated large breeding home ranges of Northern Goshawk (Accipiter(More)