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Many studies have confirmed the time-limited involvement of the hippocampus in mnemonic processes and suggested that there is reorganization of the responsible brain circuitry during memory consolidation. To clarify such reorganization, we chose trace classical eyeblink conditioning, in which hippocampal ablation produces temporally graded retrograde(More)
We studied the oscillatory properties and the olfactory responses of the procerebral (PC) lobe of the cerebral ganglion in the terrestrial mollusc Limax marginatus. The PC lobe, a central olfactory organ in Limax, is a highly interconnected network of local interneurons that receives olfactory inputs from the inferior and superior tentacular noses. We used(More)
Mice lacking the glutamate receptor subunit delta2 (GluRdelta2) are deficient in cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) at the parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapses. We conducted delay and trace eyeblink conditioning with these mice, using various temporal intervals between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). During trace(More)
The age effect on classical eyeblink conditioning in unrestrained mice (C57BL/6J strain) was evaluated. Mice were trained at one of three age periods (8, 45-50 or 85-90 weeks). In the delay paradigm, significant learning deficits were evident in the 85-90 week-old group, but no deficits were observed in the behavior of the 45-50 week-old group. On the other(More)
The delta2 glutamate receptor (GluRdelta2) is predominantly expressed in Purkinje cells and plays crucial roles in cerebellar functions: GluRdelta2-/- mice display ataxia and impaired motor learning. In addition, long-term depression (LTD) at parallel fiber (PF)-Purkinje cell synapses is abrogated, and synapse formation with PFs and climbing fibers (CFs) is(More)
In metabotropic glutamate receptor-subtype 1 (mGluR1)-null (mGluR1-/-) mice, cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) and several forms of memory are impaired. However, because mGluR1 is expressed in various brain regions in wild-type mice, it has been difficult to identify which type of memory depends on mGluR1 expressed in a given brain region. Furthermore,(More)
Purkinje cells are the sole output from the cerebellar cortex and play a critical role during classical eyeblink conditioning. The present study revealed for the first time a learning-related change in individual Purkinje cell activity during successive eyeblink conditioning in decerebrate guinea pigs which permitted continuous single unit recording from(More)
Neural oscillations have been found to occur in the olfactory centers of some vertebrates and invertebrates, including the procerebrum of the terrestrial slug Limax marginatus. Using optical recording with the potential-sensitive dye di-4-ANEPPS, we analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of procerebral neural activities in response to odorants applied to an in(More)
To elucidate the functional role of phospholipase Cbeta4 (PLCbeta4), which is highly expressed in the Purkinje cells of the rostral cerebellum, cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) and delay and trace eyeblink conditioning were investigated in PLCbeta4-deficient mice. Rostral cerebellar LTD and delay eyeblink conditioning were severely impaired, whereas(More)
Permanent lesions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) affect acquisition of conditioned responses (CRs) during trace eyeblink conditioning and retention of remotely acquired CRs. To clarify further roles of the mPFC in this type of learning, we investigated the participation of the mPFC in mnemonic processes both during and after daily conditioning using(More)