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Many studies have confirmed the time-limited involvement of the hippocampus in mnemonic processes and suggested that there is reorganization of the responsible brain circuitry during memory consolidation. To clarify such reorganization, we chose trace classical eyeblink conditioning, in which hippocampal ablation produces temporally graded retrograde(More)
We studied the oscillatory properties and the olfactory responses of the procerebral (PC) lobe of the cerebral ganglion in the terrestrial mollusc Limax marginatus. The PC lobe, a central olfactory organ in Limax, is a highly interconnected network of local interneurons that receives olfactory inputs from the inferior and superior tentacular noses. We used(More)
Mice lacking the glutamate receptor subunit delta2 (GluRdelta2) are deficient in cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) at the parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapses. We conducted delay and trace eyeblink conditioning with these mice, using various temporal intervals between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). During trace(More)
The age effect on classical eyeblink conditioning in unrestrained mice (C57BL/6J strain) was evaluated. Mice were trained at one of three age periods (8, 45-50 or 85-90 weeks). In the delay paradigm, significant learning deficits were evident in the 85-90 week-old group, but no deficits were observed in the behavior of the 45-50 week-old group. On the other(More)
Neural oscillations have been found to occur in the olfactory centers of some vertebrates and invertebrates, including the procerebrum of the terrestrial slug Limax marginatus. Using optical recording with the potential-sensitive dye di-4-ANEPPS, we analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of procerebral neural activities in response to odorants applied to an in(More)
In metabotropic glutamate receptor-subtype 1 (mGluR1)-null (mGluR1-/-) mice, cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) and several forms of memory are impaired. However, because mGluR1 is expressed in various brain regions in wild-type mice, it has been difficult to identify which type of memory depends on mGluR1 expressed in a given brain region. Furthermore,(More)
To elucidate the functional role of phospholipase Cbeta4 (PLCbeta4), which is highly expressed in the Purkinje cells of the rostral cerebellum, cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) and delay and trace eyeblink conditioning were investigated in PLCbeta4-deficient mice. Rostral cerebellar LTD and delay eyeblink conditioning were severely impaired, whereas(More)
(PC) of terrestrial pulmonates is a highly developed domain of the cerebral ganglion that is believed to be an olfactory centre because it receives extensive projections from the olfactory nerves (Gelperin et al. 1993) and because its metabolic activities are increased by olfactory stimulation of the tentacle (Chase, 1985). The PC shows highly specialized(More)
The delta2 glutamate receptor (GluRdelta2) is predominantly expressed in Purkinje cells and plays crucial roles in cerebellar functions: GluRdelta2-/- mice display ataxia and impaired motor learning. In addition, long-term depression (LTD) at parallel fiber (PF)-Purkinje cell synapses is abrogated, and synapse formation with PFs and climbing fibers (CFs) is(More)
In mice lacking glutamate receptor subunit delta 2 (GluR delta 2(-/-_ mice), cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) at the parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapses is disrupted. Unlike the cerebellar LTD-deficient mice previously used for eyeblink conditioning, however, the abnormalities of the GluR delta 2(-/-) mice are restricted to the cerebellar cortex. In(More)