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Many studies have confirmed the time-limited involvement of the hippocampus in mnemonic processes and suggested that there is reorganization of the responsible brain circuitry during memory consolidation. To clarify such reorganization, we chose trace classical eyeblink conditioning, in which hippocampal ablation produces temporally graded retrograde(More)
In metabotropic glutamate receptor-subtype 1 (mGluR1)-null (mGluR1-/-) mice, cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) and several forms of memory are impaired. However, because mGluR1 is expressed in various brain regions in wild-type mice, it has been difficult to identify which type of memory depends on mGluR1 expressed in a given brain region. Furthermore,(More)
The delta2 glutamate receptor (GluRdelta2) is predominantly expressed in Purkinje cells and plays crucial roles in cerebellar functions: GluRdelta2-/- mice display ataxia and impaired motor learning. In addition, long-term depression (LTD) at parallel fiber (PF)-Purkinje cell synapses is abrogated, and synapse formation with PFs and climbing fibers (CFs) is(More)
Purkinje cells are the sole output from the cerebellar cortex and play a critical role during classical eyeblink conditioning. The present study revealed for the first time a learning-related change in individual Purkinje cell activity during successive eyeblink conditioning in decerebrate guinea pigs which permitted continuous single unit recording from(More)
Permanent lesions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) affect acquisition of conditioned responses (CRs) during trace eyeblink conditioning and retention of remotely acquired CRs. To clarify further roles of the mPFC in this type of learning, we investigated the participation of the mPFC in mnemonic processes both during and after daily conditioning using(More)
(PC) of terrestrial pulmonates is a highly developed domain of the cerebral ganglion that is believed to be an olfactory centre because it receives extensive projections from the olfactory nerves (Gelperin et al. 1993) and because its metabolic activities are increased by olfactory stimulation of the tentacle (Chase, 1985). The PC shows highly specialized(More)
We examined the role of the hippocampus in memory retention after trace eyeblink conditioning in mice. After establishing the conditioned response (CR) in the trace paradigm, mice received a bilateral aspiration of the dorsal hippocampus and its overlying neocortex on the next day (1-day group) or after 4 weeks (4-week group). Control mice received a(More)
We examined the effects of acute injections of competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) into the dorsal hippocampus on contextual fear conditioning and classical eyeblink conditioning in C57BL/6 mice. When injected 10 to 40 min before training, APV severely impaired contextual fear conditioning. Thus,(More)
The importance of the hippocampus in declarative memory is limited to recently acquired memory, and remotely acquired memory is believed to be stored somewhere in the neocortex. However, it remains unknown how the memory network is reorganized from a hippocampus-dependent form into a neocortex-dependent one. We reported previously that the medial prefrontal(More)
Mutant mice lacking the glutamate receptor subunit delta2 exhibit changes in the structure and function of the cerebellar cortex. The most prominent functional feature is a deficiency in the long-term depression (LTD) at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. These mutant mice exhibit severe impairment during delay eyeblink conditioning but learn normally(More)