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A multidisciplinary collaborative study examining cognition in a large sample of twins is outlined. A common experimental protocol and design is used in The Netherlands, Australia and Japan to measure cognitive ability using traditional IQ measures (i.e., psychometric IQ), processing speed (e.g., reaction time [RT] and inspection time [IT]), and working(More)
OBJECTIVE The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorders. METHOD(More)
APOE is an established susceptibility gene for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Recent genome-wide association studies have identified many additional susceptibility genes for LOAD in populations of European descent. However, there is little information on whether or not genetic variants in these genes are associated with other ethnicities. To(More)
The etiology of schizophrenia remains unclear, while there has been a growing amount of evidence for the neuroinflammation and immunogenetics, which are characterized by an increased serum concentration of several pro-inflammatory cytokines. Despite the fact that microglia comprise only <10% of the total brain cells, microglia respond rapidly to even minor(More)
We investigated whether interleukin-1 (IL-1) activity in the rat hypothalamus was increased by immobilization stress (IS), and whether pretreatment with an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is capable of inhibiting IS-induced elevations of hypothalamic norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) and the levels of their metabolites as(More)
OBJECTIVE We examined the association between diabetes-related factors and pathology of Alzheimer disease (AD) to evaluate how diabetes affects the pathogenic process of AD. METHODS This study included specimens from a series of 135 autopsies of residents of the town of Hisayama in Fukuoka prefecture (74 men and 61 women) performed between 1998 and 2003,(More)
Circumstantial evidence has suggested that activated microglia may be associated with the pathogenesis of depression. Pro-inflammatory cytokines may also be involved. Therefore, we examined the effects of various types of antidepressants, as well as the mood-stabilizer lithium chloride, on interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-induced microglial production of the(More)
BACKGROUND Atypical antipsychotics are widely used in bipolar mania. However, the efficacy of atypical antipsychotics in bipolar depression has not been comprehensively explored. AIMS To evaluate olanzapine monotherapy in patients with bipolar depression. METHOD Patients with bipolar depression received olanzapine (5-20 mg/day, n = 343) or placebo (n =(More)
OBJECTIVES   Psychiatrists have long debated whether bipolar disorder (BP) and schizophrenia (SZ) are the clinical outcomes of discrete or shared causative processes. SZ shows significantly delayed peak latencies of the evoked neural oscillation (eNO) power and reduced eNO power to speech sounds in the left hemisphere in comparison to normal controls (NC),(More)
OBJECTIVE To record mismatch negativity (MMN) to a visual stimulus fulfilling similar criteria to those of auditory MMN (A-MMN). METHODS Twelve normal adults were instructed to simultaneously listen to a story and to pay attention to a visual target. Three windmill patterns that differed in the number of vanes (standard, deviant, or target) were used as(More)