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The life cycle of Arabidopsis plants was examined by growing them on a horizontal clinostat. Seeds on agar media were allowed to germinate and seedlings were grown under a simulated microgravity on a horizontal clinostat. Clinorotation (3 rpm) did not appear to interfere with germination of plant seeds and development of cotyledons and leaves. Stress(More)
Using only a microphone array system, echolocation pulses and three-dimensional flight paths in the frequency-modulated bat, Pipistrellus abramus, during natural foraging, were simultaneously examined. During the search phase, the inter-pulse interval, pulse duration, and moving distance of the bat between successive emissions were relatively constant at(More)
Echolocation sounds of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon as they approached a fluttering moth (Goniocraspidum pryeri) were investigated using an on-board telemetry microphone (Telemike). In 40 % of the successful moth-capture flights, the moth exhibited distinctive evasive flight behavior, but the bat pursued the moth by following its flight path. When the(More)
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