Learn More
The homeostasis of animals is regulated not only by the growth and differentiation of cells, but also by cell death through a process known as apoptosis. Apoptosis is mediated by members of the caspase family of proteases, and eventually causes the degradation of chromosomal DNA. A caspase-activated deoxyribonuclease (CAD) and its inhibitor (ICAD) have now(More)
Shigekazu Nagata family, while the length and sequence of the cytoplasmic segments differ significantly. Department of Genetics Proteolysis of membrane-associated TNF produces Osaka University Medical School soluble TNF. The proteolysis is mediated by a membrane 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita metalloproteinase (Gearing et al., 1994). Similarly, mem-Osaka 565(More)
Fas is a type-I membrane protein that transduces an apoptotic signal. Binding of Fas ligand or agonistic anti-Fas antibody to Fas kills the cells by apoptosis. Studies in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have suggested that proteases such as interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE) or the product of the C. elegans cell-death gene ced-3 are involved in(More)
Various molecules such as cytokines and anticancer drugs, as well as factor deprivation, rapidly induce apoptosis (programmed cell death), which is morphologically characterized by cell shrinkage and the blebbing of plasma membranes and by nuclear condensation. Caspases, particularly caspase 3, are proteases that are activated during apoptosis and which(More)
Apoptotic cells expose phosphatidylserine and are swiftly engulfed by macrophages. Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor (EGF) factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a protein that binds to apoptotic cells by recognizing phosphatidylserine and that enhances the engulfment of apoptotic cells by macrophages. We report that tingible body macrophages in the germinal centers(More)
Binding of Fas ligand or an agonistic anti-Fas antibody induces apoptosis in Fas-bearing cells. The interleukin-1Beta-converting enzyme (ICE) is a cysteine protease that is involved in apoptosis induced by various stimuli, including Fas-mediated apoptosis. Several ICE homologues have been identified, and these are subdivided into three groups (ICE-, CPP32-,(More)
Innate immunity is stimulated not only by viral or bacterial components, but also by non-microbial danger signals (damage-associated molecular patterns). One of the damage-associated molecular patterns is chromosomal DNA that escapes degradation. In programmed cell death and erythropoiesis, DNA from dead cells or nuclei expelled from erythroblasts is(More)
In all animal cells, phospholipids are asymmetrically distributed between the outer and inner leaflets of the plasma membrane. This asymmetrical phospholipid distribution is disrupted in various biological systems. For example, when blood platelets are activated, they expose phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) to trigger the clotting system. The PtdSer exposure is(More)
Efficient phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is crucial for tissue homeostasis and the immune response. Rab5 is known as a key regulator of the early endocytic pathway and we have recently shown that Rab5 is also implicated in apoptotic cell engulfment; however, the precise spatio-temporal dynamics of Rab5 activity remain unknown. Here, using a newly developed(More)
The eye lens is composed of fibre cells, which develop from the epithelial cells on the anterior surface of the lens. Differentiation into a lens fibre cell is accompanied by changes in cell shape, the expression of crystallins and the degradation of cellular organelles. The loss of organelles is believed to ensure the transparency of the lens, but the(More)