Shigekazu Nagata

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its activity when it is cleaved from the membrane. FurThere is an old Japanese saying that “Once we are in thermore, membrane-bound TNF is more active than the land of the living, we will eventually die.” This is true, soluble TNF in activating the type II TNF receptor (Grell not only for human beings, but also for the cells that et al., 1995). These(More)
Apoptotic cells are rapidly engulfed by phagocytes to prevent the release of potentially noxious or immunogenic intracellular materials from the dying cells, thereby preserving the integrity and function of the surrounding tissue. Phagocytes engulf apoptotic but not healthy cells, indicating that the apoptotic cells present a signal to the phagocytes, and(More)
In programmed cell death, a large number of cells undergo apoptosis, and are engulfed by macrophages to avoid the release of noxious materials from the dying cells. In definitive erythropoiesis, nuclei are expelled from erythroid precursor cells and are engulfed by macrophages. Phosphatidylserine is exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells and on the(More)
Apoptotic cells expose phosphatidylserine and are swiftly engulfed by macrophages. Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor (EGF) factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a protein that binds to apoptotic cells by recognizing phosphatidylserine and that enhances the engulfment of apoptotic cells by macrophages. We report that tingible body macrophages in the germinal centers(More)
Degradation of nuclear DNA into nucleosomal units is one of the hallmarks of apoptotic cell death. It occurs in response to various apoptotic stimuli in a wide variety of cell types. Molecular characterization of this process identified a specific DNase (CAD, caspase-activated DNase) that cleaves chromosomal DNA in a caspase-dependent manner. CAD is(More)
FAS belongs to the subgroup of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) family that contains an intracellular "death domain" and triggers apoptosis. Its physiological ligand FASL is a member of the TNF cytokine family. Studies with mutant mice and cells from human patients have shown that FAS plays critical roles in the immune system, including the(More)
Neonatal hypoxic/ischemic (H/I) brain injury causes neurological impairment, including cognitive and motor dysfunction as well as seizures. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating neuron death after H/I injury are poorly defined and remain controversial. Here we show that Atg7, a gene essential for autophagy induction, is a critical mediator of(More)
In all animal cells, phospholipids are asymmetrically distributed between the outer and inner leaflets of the plasma membrane. This asymmetrical phospholipid distribution is disrupted in various biological systems. For example, when blood platelets are activated, they expose phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) to trigger the clotting system. The PtdSer exposure is(More)
A large amount of chromosomal DNA is degraded during programmed cell death and definitive erythropoiesis. DNase II is an enzyme that digests the chromosomal DNA of apoptotic cells and nuclei expelled from erythroid precursor cells after macrophages have engulfed them. Here we show that DNase II-/-IFN-IR-/- mice and mice with an induced deletion of the DNase(More)
Mnk1 and Mnk2 are protein kinases that are directly phosphorylated and activated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) or p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and implicated in the regulation of protein synthesis through their phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) at Ser209. To investigate their physiological(More)