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Because optical WDM networks will become a realistic choice for buildings backbones , multicasting in the WDM network should be supported for various network applications. In this paper, a new multicast problem, Multicast Routing under Delay Constraint Problem (MRDCP), routing a request with delay bound to all destinations in a WDM network with different(More)
In recent years, e-learning system has become more and more popular and many adaptive learning environments have been proposed to offer learners customized courses in accordance with their aptitudes and learning results. For achieving the adaptive learning, a predefined concept map of a course is often used to provide adaptive learning guidance for(More)
With vigorous development of the Internet, e-learning system has become more and more popular. Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) 1.3 provides the Sequencing and Navigation to define the course sequencing behavior, control the sequencing, select and deliver of course, and organize the content into a hierarchical structure, namely Activity Tree.(More)
Mining useful information and helpful knowledge from large databases has evolved into an important research area in recent years. Among the classes of knowledge derived, finding sequential patterns in temporal transaction databases is very important since it can help model customer behavior. In the past, researchers usually assumed databases were static to(More)