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Cocaine administration upregulates the levels of extracellular glutamate and dopamine in the striatum. Activation of the receptors alters calcium homeostasis in striatal neurons leading to the expression of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins. It was therefore hypothesized that cocaine upregulates the expression of the ER stress proteins,(More)
Schizophrenia is one of the common mental diseases. Because the mechanism of the schizophrenia is significantly complicated, the cause is still unknown. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist can simulate the positive and negative symptoms, as well as the cognitive disorder of schizophrenia. Thus it has been widely used to establish the animal models of(More)
Ketamine is a phencyclidine derivative acting primarily as a noncompetitive antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) excitatory glutamate receptors. As a common intravenous anaesthetic in clinic, it is also increasingly abused because of its hallucination and addiction effects. Based on the pharmacological and toxicologic characteristics of ketamine and(More)
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