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Despite the functional importance of the human quadriceps femoris in movements such as running, jumping, lifting and climbing, and the known effects of muscle architecture on muscle function, no research has fully described the complex architecture of this muscle group. We used ultrasound imaging techniques to measure muscle thickness, fascicle angle and(More)
The mechanisms governing the increases in force production in response to short periods of strength training have yet to be fully elucidated. We examined whether muscle architectural adaptation was a contributing factor. Ultrasound imaging techniques were used to measure quadriceps muscle architecture at 17 sites in vivo in trained and untrained legs of men(More)
Electromechanical delay (EMD) in isometric contractions of knee extensors evoked by voluntary, tendon reflex (TR) and electrical stimulation (ES) was investigated in 21 healthy young subjects. The subject performed voluntary knee extensions with maximum effort (maximal voluntary contraction, MVC), and at 30%, 60% and 80% MVC. Patellar tendon reflexes were(More)
Electromechanical delay (EMD) of knee extensors in isometric contraction was investigated in six healthy men before and after four periods of 30-s all-out sprint cycling exercise, conducted pre and post a 7-week sprint cycling training programme. The EMD was lengthened from 40.4 (SEM 3.46) ms at rest to 63.4 (SEM 7.80) ms after the fatiguing exercise (P ≤(More)
This study was conducted to assess the effects in trained cyclists of exhausting endurance cycle exercise (CE) on maximal isometric force production, surface electromyogram (EMG) and activation deficit (AD) of the knee extensors. Ten male subjects made four isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensor muscles immediately prior (pre),(More)
In this study we investigate the effects of unilateral voluntary contraction (VC) and electromyostimulation superimposed on VC (EV) training on maximal voluntary (MVC) force and cross-sectional area (CSA), as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging of knee extensors. Thirty young men were randomly assigned to either a control group (CG), VC group (VG), or EV(More)
Type 1 (TI) and Type 2 (T2) lymphocytes promote cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity respectively. Evidence accumulated over the past two decades has demonstrated diverse responses of T1 and T2 cells to acute exercise or long-term training at moderate and high intensities. This brief review highlights the current findings from animal and human(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supervised treadmill walking training on the calf muscle capillarization in patients with intermittent claudication. The first 12-week period was a non-exercise, within-subject control stage, and the second 12-week period was an exercise training stage. Calf muscle biopsy and functional capacity(More)
It is known that electromyostimulation (EMS) alone or superimposed over voluntary contraction (EV) can effectively improve muscle strength. However, the effect of this type of training on the ability to control force production at submaximal levels is unknown. The authors examined the effects of EV training on steadiness in force production of knee(More)
Use of testosterone enanthate has been shown to significantly increase strength within 6-12 weeks of administration (2, 9), however, it is unclear if the ergogenic benefits are evident in less than 6 weeks. Testosterone enanthate is classified as a prohibited substance by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and its use may be detected by way of the urinary(More)