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Consumers often form preferences based on the presented attributes of choice options. Previous research has suggested that consumers tend to form their preferences using the attributes that are related to common aspects between the options (i.e., alignable differences) and ignore attributes that are unique to individual options (i.e., nonalignable(More)
The main objective of this study was to assess the economic cost of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Shanghai, China, as a pilot study for future evaluations. Sixty-seven patients with AD were interviewed, and the information of the AD-related cost and resources used was collected from October 2005 to September 2006. By retrospective analysis, annual costs were(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Accumulating data indicate that astrocytes play an important role in the neuroinflammation related to the pathogenesis of AD. It has been shown that microglia and astrocytes are activated in AD brain and amyloid-beta (Abeta) can increase the expression of cyclooxygenase 2(More)
Although some studies described the characteristics of colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in neovascularization, it is still controversial whether an interaction exists or not between CSCs and EPCs. In the present study, HCT116 and HT29 sphere models, which are known to be the cells enriching CSCs, were(More)
Dynamic software updating is critical for many systems that must provide continuous service. And Java language is gaining increasing popularity in developing distributed system. Most of previous works on updating concerns on safely update one class every time. It occur many limitations on updating classes, such as not allowing deleting method which is(More)
With the development of research on wireless sensor networks (WSNs), localization in the WSNs has become a very important research point. At present, there are mainly two kinds of approaches, range-based approach and range-free approach. Localization precision of range-based approach is higher than the range-free approach. In the range-based approach, time(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that microglial activation may participate in the aetiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). CD200-CD200R signalling has been shown to be critical for restraining microglial activation. We have previously shown that expression of CD200R in monocyte-derived macrophages, induced by various stimuli, is impaired in PD(More)
CD200-CD200R signaling holds microglia in a quiescent state. Parkinson disease (PD) neurodegeneration may be associated with impairment of CD200-CD200R-mediated microglia silencing in the substantia nigra (SN). In this study, an anti-CD200R blocking antibody (ACDR) selectively and significantly enhanced the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to(More)
PURPOSE Fecal incontinence and constipation still remain as major postoperative complications after procedures for anorectal malformations (ARM). The striated muscle complex (SMC) is one of the most important factors that influence defecation. Previous studies have demonstrated different degrees of the muscle complex dysplasia dependent on the complexity of(More)
In this letter, the routing and wavelength assignment problem in all optical networks is considered. We improve the Max-RWA model presented in [2] by introducing limited-range wavelength conversions. Considering transmission performance, we propose a new optimization objective, which is to establish the maximum number of connections with the least number of(More)