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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critical for the function and survival of neurons that degenerate in the late stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are two forms of BDNF, the BDNF precursor (proBDNF) and mature BDNF, in human brain. Previous studies have shown that BDNF mRNA and protein, including proBDNF, are dramatically decreased in(More)
Downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the cortex occurs early in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since BDNF plays a critical role in neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and memory, BDNF reduction may contribute to synaptic and cellular loss and memory deficits characteristic of AD. In vitro evidence suggests that(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is critical for the regulation, differentiation, and survival of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons that degenerate in the late stage of Alzheimer disease (AD). The precursor of NGF (proNGF) is the predominant form of NGF in brain and is increased in end stage AD. To determine whether this increase in proNGF is an early or late(More)
The TgCRND8 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease exhibits progressive cortical and hippocampal β-amyloid accumulation, resulting in plaque pathology and spatial memory impairment by 3 months of age. We tested whether TgCRND8 cognitive function is disrupted prior to the appearance of macroscopic plaques in an object recognition task. We found profound deficits(More)
Vesicle fusion is executed via formation of an Ω-shaped structure (Ω-profile), followed by closure (kiss-and-run) or merging of the Ω-profile into the plasma membrane (full fusion). Although Ω-profile closure limits release but recycles vesicles economically, Ω-profile merging facilitates release but couples to classical endocytosis for recycling. Despite(More)
OBJECTIVE Oxidative stress in the brain is highly prevalent in many neurodegenerative disorders including lysosomal storage disorders, in which neurodegeneration is a devastating manifestation. Despite intense studies, a precise mechanism linking oxidative stress to neuropathology in specific neurodegenerative diseases remains largely unclear. METHODS(More)
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