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Dynorphin peptides and k-opioid receptor are important in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse such as heroin. This study examined potential association between heroin dependence and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of prodynorphin (PDYN) gene (rs35286281 in promoter region and rs1022563, rs2235749, rs910080 in 3'UTR). Participants included(More)
Spatial distribution pattern of biological related species present unique opportunities and challenges to explain species coexistence. In this study, we explored the spatial distributions and associations among congeneric species at both the species and genus levels to explain their coexistence through examining the similarities and differences at these two(More)
Experimental evidence suggests the involvement of the brain dopaminergic system in learning and memory processes, although the associated molecular mechanism has yet to be fully characterized. Memory formation occurs via a number of signaling pathways associated with activation of many synaptic plasticity-related proteins, including the N-Methyl-D-aspartic(More)
The serotoninergic (5-HT) system regulates neuronal activity in broad brain regions, and appears to be particularly important for modulating behavioral and physiological functions such as mood, emotion, sleep and appetite. Central 5-HT deregulation may be involved in many neuropsychological disorders, which include substance abuse and addiction. Previous(More)
INTRODUCTION A tumor metastasizing to another malignancy is an uncommon phenomenon. Since it was first described in 1902, there have been fewer than 200 cases reported in the literature, with lung cancer metastasizing to renal cell carcinoma being the most frequently described pattern. Here we report a case of a solitary fibrous tumor of the lung acting as(More)
Wnt/β-catenin signaling is essential for the initiation of dorsal-ventral patterning during vertebrate embryogenesis. Maternal β-catenin accumulates in dorsal marginal nuclei during cleavage stages, but its critical target genes essential for dorsalization are silent until mid-blastula transition (MBT). Here, we find that zebrafish net1, a guanine(More)
Recent studies indicate the involvement of dopamine receptors D1 and D3 in the regulation of locomotor stimulant and conditioned responses to morphine in mice. Moreover, expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may be modulated by D1 and D3 receptor activities in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, the underlying(More)
During vertebrate embryogenesis, the neuroectoderm is induced from dorsal ectoderm and then partitioned into anterior and posterior neuroectodermal domains by posteriorizing signals, such as Wnt and fibroblast growth factor. However, little is known about epigenetic regulation of posteriorizing gene expression. Here, we report a requirement of the chromatin(More)
The species-area relationship is one of the most important topic in the study of species diversity, conservation biology and landscape ecology. The species-area relationship curves describe the increase of species number with increasing area, and have been modeled by various equations. In this paper, we used detailed data from six 1-ha subtropical forest(More)