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Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA) are important signaling molecules that induce plant defense against insect herbivores and microbial pathogens. We tested the hypothesis that allelopathy is an inducible defense mechanism, and that the JA and SA signaling pathways may activate allelochemicals release. Exogenous application of MeJA and MeSA(More)
Common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) link multiple plants together. We hypothesized that CMNs can serve as an underground conduit for transferring herbivore-induced defence signals. We established CMN between two tomato plants in pots with mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae, challenged a 'donor' plant with caterpillar Spodoptera litura, and investigated(More)
Arbuscular mycorrhizas are the most important symbioses in terrestrial ecosystems and they enhance the plant defense against numerous soil-borne pathogenic fungi and nematodes. Two corn (Zea mays) varieties, Gaoyou-115 that is susceptible to sheath blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Yuenong-9 that is resistant, were used for mycorrhizal(More)
The jasmonic acid (JA) pathway plays a key role in plant defense responses against herbivorous insects. CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) is an F-box protein essential for all jasmonate responses. However, the precise defense function of COI1 in monocotyledonous plants, especially in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is largely unknown. We silenced OsCOI1 in rice plants(More)
Mycorrhizas play a vital role in soil fertility, plant nutrition, and resistance to environmental stresses. However, mycorrhizal effects on plant resistance to herbivorous insects and the related mechanisms are poorly understood. This study evaluated effects of root colonization of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)(More)
A new type of amphiphilic block copolymers, poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(2-methyl-acrylicacid 2-methoxy-5-methyl-[1,3]dioxin-5-ylmethyl ester) (PEG-b-PMME), bearing acid-labile six-membered ortho ester rings in side chains was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization, and the influence of chain length of the(More)
Agricultural, industrial, and urban activities are the major sources for eutrophication of surface water ecosystems. Currently, determination of nutrients in surface water is primarily accomplished by manually collecting samples for laboratory analysis, which requires at least 24 h. In other words, little to no effort has been devoted to monitoring(More)
This study examines allelopathic potential of genetically modified rice. The experiment was conducted on two isogenic lines Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and non-Bacillus thuringiensis (non-Bt). Both isogenic lines have same allelopathic ability before insect feeding and after limited insect feeding (Spodoptera litura) non-Bt rice genotype demonstrates more(More)
Ultraviolet-B radiation is rising continuously due to stratospheric ozone depletion over temperate latitudes. This study investigated effects of UV exposure on rice allelopathic potentials. For this purpose, two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars BR-41 (high allelopathic = able to inhibit neighboring plants in native environment) and Huajingxian (low(More)
The diblock copolymer, PEG-b-PMEA, was synthesized by reversible-addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT). The PMEA block contained a polymethacrylamide backbone and twin ortho ester rings in the side-chains. At neutral pH, PEG-b-PMEA self-assembled to form stable micelles. At pH 5, the twin ortho ester rings were quickly hydrolyzed to(More)