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Renewal of stem cells differs from cancer cell growth in self-controlled cell division. The mir-302 microRNA (miRNA) family (mir-302s) is expressed most abundantly in slow-growing human embryonic stem (ES) cells, and quickly decreases after cell differentiation and proliferation. Therefore, mir-302s was investigated as one of the key factors essential for(More)
Global demethylation is required for early zygote development to establish stem cell pluripotency, yet our findings reiterate this epigenetic reprogramming event in somatic cells through ectopic introduction of mir-302 function. Here, we report that induced mir-302 expression beyond 1.3-fold of the concentration in human embryonic stem (hES) H1 and H9 cells(More)
The pattern of microRNA (miRNA) expression is associated with the degree of tumor cell differentiation in human prostate cancer. MiRNAs bind complementarily to either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, which are consequently silenced, resulting in alterations of tumorigenecity. We have detected eight down-regulated and three up-regulated known miRNAs in(More)
Activins, cytokine members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, have various effects on many physiological processes, including cell proliferation, cell death, metabolism, homeostasis, differentiation, immune responses endocrine function, etc. Activins interact with two structurally related serine/threonine kinase receptors, type I and type(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small single-stranded regulatory RNAs capable of interfering with intracellular messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that contain either complete or partial complementarity, are useful for the design of new therapies against cancer polymorphism and viral mutation. Numerous miRNAs have been reported to induce RNA interference (RNAi), a(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small single-stranded regulatory RNAs capable of interfering with intracellular mRNAs that contain partial complementarity, are useful for the design of new therapies against cancer polymorphism and viral mutation. MiRNA was originally discovered in the intergenic regions of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome as native RNA fragments that(More)
miR-302 is the major microRNA found in human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, but its function has been unclear. In mice, there is evidence that miR-302 may silence p21Cip1 (CDKN1A) to promote cell proliferation, whereas studies in human reprogrammed pluripotent stem cells suggested that elevated miR-302 expression inhibited cell(More)
The aim of this review is to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms by which activin A modulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Activin A, a member of the TGFbeta superfamily, has various effects on diverse biological systems, including cell growth inhibition in many cell types. However, the mechanism(s) by(More)
The two oligonucleotide strands of a siRNA duplex are functionally asymmetric in assembling the RNAi effector, RNA-induced gene silencing complex (RISC). Based on this asymmetric RISC assembly model in vitro, formation of a microRNA (miRNA) and complementary miRNA (miRNA*) duplex was proposed to be an essential step for the assembly of miRNA-associated RISC(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), widely distributed, small regulatory RNA genes, target both messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation and suppression of protein translation based on sequence complementarity between the miRNA and its targeted mRNA. Different names have been used to describe various types of miRNA. During evolution, RNA retroviruses or transgenes invaded the(More)