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The pattern of microRNA (miRNA) expression is associated with the degree of tumor cell differentiation in human prostate cancer. MiRNAs bind complementarily to either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, which are consequently silenced, resulting in alterations of tumorigenecity. We have detected eight down-regulated and three up-regulated known miRNAs in(More)
Renewal of stem cells differs from cancer cell growth in self-controlled cell division. The mir-302 microRNA (miRNA) family (mir-302s) is expressed most abundantly in slow-growing human embryonic stem (ES) cells, and quickly decreases after cell differentiation and proliferation. Therefore, mir-302s was investigated as one of the key factors essential for(More)
Global demethylation is required for early zygote development to establish stem cell pluripotency, yet our findings reiterate this epigenetic reprogramming event in somatic cells through ectopic introduction of mir-302 function. Here, we report that induced mir-302 expression beyond 1.3-fold of the concentration in human embryonic stem (hES) H1 and H9 cells(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small single-stranded regulatory RNAs capable of interfering with intracellular messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that contain either complete or partial complementarity, are useful for the design of new therapies against cancer polymorphism and viral mutation. Numerous miRNAs have been reported to induce RNA interference (RNAi), a(More)
The aim of this review is to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms by which activin A modulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Activin A, a member of the TGFbeta superfamily, has various effects on diverse biological systems, including cell growth inhibition in many cell types. However, the mechanism(s) by(More)
Activins, cytokine members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, have various effects on many physiological processes, including cell proliferation, cell death, metabolism, homeostasis, differentiation, immune responses endocrine function, etc. Activins interact with two structurally related serine/threonine kinase receptors, type I and type(More)
Nearly 97% of the human genome is non-coding DNA. The intron occupies most of it around the gene-coding regions. Numerous intronic sequences have been recently found to encode microRNAs (miRNAs), responsible for RNA-mediated gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi)-like pathways. miRNAs, small single-stranded regulatory RNAs capable of interfering(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small single-stranded regulatory RNAs capable of interfering with intracellular messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that contain either complete or partial complementarity, are useful for the design of new therapies against cancer polymorphism and viral mutation. Numerous miRNAs have been reported to induce RNA interference (RNAi), a(More)
miR-302 is the major microRNA found in human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, but its function has been unclear. In mice, there is evidence that miR-302 may silence p21Cip1 (CDKN1A) to promote cell proliferation, whereas studies in human reprogrammed pluripotent stem cells suggested that elevated miR-302 expression inhibited cell(More)