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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common brain tumor in adults, is neurologically destructive and has a dismal response to virtually all therapeutic modalities. One phenomenon that can contribute to this complexity is the presence of a relatively small subset of glioma stem cells (GSCs) within the tumor and the activation of pathways that control(More)
Hop stunt was a mysterious disorder that first emerged in the 1940s in commercial hops in Japan. To investigate the origin of this disorder, we infected hops with natural Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd) isolates derived from four host species (hop, grapevine, plum and citrus), which except for hop represent possible sources of the ancestral viroid. These plants(More)
Replicating circular RNAs are independent plant pathogens known as viroids, or act to modulate the pathogenesis of plant and animal viruses as their satellite RNAs. The rate of discovery of these subviral pathogens was low over the past 40 years because the classical approaches are technical demanding and time-consuming. We previously described an approach(More)
Potato virus M (PVM), pepino mosaic virus (PepMV), tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), and potato virus S (PVS) infect pepino and cause serious crop losses. In this study, a multiplex RT-PCR method was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of PVS, ToMV, PepMV and PVM. The method was highly reliable and sensitive; validation was accomplished by(More)
Potato virus M (PVM, genus Carlavirus, family Betaflexviridae) is considered to be one of most economically important pathogens of pepino in China. However, the details and the mechanisms underlying PVM evolution are unknown. In this study, we determined and analyzed 40 TGB 1 gene sequences, 67 TGB 2 and TGB 3 gene sequences, and 88 CP and NABP gene(More)
This study aimed to develop a polyprobe for the simultaneous detection of four viroids that infect grapevine: Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), Australian grapevine viroid (AGVd), Grapevine yellow speckle viroid-1 and 2 (GYSVd-1, 2), using a non-isotopic dot blot hybridization technique. A polyprobe was constructed by cloning tandem full-length sequences of HSVd,(More)
Recombinant Semliki Forest virus (rSFV), as a new kind of neurotropic vector system, has great potential of gene therapy for stroke. However, very little is known about its transduction characteristics in cerebral cortex or corpus callosum (CC) in vivo, which are common targets for gene transfer in experimental stroke therapy. Here, we investigate and(More)
OBJECTIVE Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) enhances neurogenesis in ischemic brains. However, in most circumstances, endogenous VEGF expression is limited and insufficient to prevent brain damage. We transferred the VEGF gene into brain tissue with recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (rAAV1) vectors and determined the effect of VEGF(More)
OBJECTIVE Therapeutic neovascularization is a promising strategy for treating patients after an ischemic stroke; however, single-factor therapy has limitations. Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins synergistically promote angiogenesis. In this study, the authors assessed the effect of combined gene(More)
Extensive simple sequence repeat (SSR) surveys have been performed for eukaryotic prokaryotic and viral genomes, but information regarding SSRs in viroids is limited. We undertook a survey to examine the presence of SSRs in viroid genomes. Our results show that the distribution of SSRs in viroids may influence secondary structure, and that SSRs could play a(More)