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Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are capable of forming complex intracellular bacterial communities (IBC) within the superficial umbrella cells of the bladders of C3H and BALB/c mice. By using time-lapse fluorescence videomicroscopy to observe infected mouse bladder explants, we discovered that IBCs formed by uropathogenic E. coli progressed through(More)
have large arsenals of tools to withstand a multitude of environmental insults. In most cases, exposure to harsh elements results in the production of specific enzymes that aid the alleviation of stresses and allow survival and/or growth 1,2. Strikingly, a number of laboratories that study unrelated aspects of bacterial biology have converged on a similar(More)
Recent studies stress the importance of antimicrobial peptides in protecting the urinary tract from infection. Previously, we have shown that ribonuclease 7 (RNase 7) is a potent antimicrobial peptide that has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against uropathogenic bacteria. The urothelium of the lower urinary tract and intercalated cells of the(More)
To establish disease, an infecting organism must overcome a vast array of host defenses. During cystitis, uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) subvert innate defenses by invading superficial umbrella cells and rapidly increasing in numbers to form intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs). In the late stages of the IBC pathway, filamentous and bacillary(More)
The gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli is the leading cause of urinary tract infection. The interaction between type 1 piliated E. coli and bladder epithelial cells leads to the rapid production of inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8. Conflicting reports have been published in the literature regarding the mechanism by which(More)
Urinary tract infections are most commonly caused by uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (UPEC), which invade superficial bladder epithelial cells via a type 1 pilus-dependent mechanism. Inside these epithelial cells, UPEC organisms multiply to high numbers to form intracellular bacterial communities, allowing them to avoid immune detection. Bladder(More)
Escherichia coli is the most common cause of community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI). During murine cystitis, uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) utilizes type 1 pili to bind and invade superficial bladder epithelial cells. UPEC then replicates within to form intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs), a process whose genetic determinants are as yet(More)
In Escherichia coli, FkpA, PpiA, PpiD, and SurA are the four known periplasmic cis-trans prolyl isomerases. These isomerases facilitate proper protein folding by increasing the rate of transition of proline residues between the cis and trans states. Genetic inactivation of all four periplasmic isomerases resulted in a viable strain that exhibited a(More)
Beta defensins (BDs) are cationic peptides with antimicrobial activity that defend epithelial surfaces including the skin, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts. However, BD expression and function in the urinary tract are incompletely characterized. The purpose of this study was to describe Beta Defensin-1 (BD-1) expression in the lower urinary tract,(More)