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Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are capable of forming complex intracellular bacterial communities (IBC) within the superficial umbrella cells of the bladders of C3H and BALB/c mice. By using time-lapse fluorescence videomicroscopy to observe infected mouse bladder explants, we discovered that IBCs formed by uropathogenic E. coli progressed through(More)
Bacteria have evolved complex systems to maintain consistent cell morphologies. Nevertheless, in certain circumstances, bacteria alter this highly regulated process to transform into filamentous organisms. Accumulating evidence attributes important biological roles to filamentation in stressful environments, including, but not limited to, sites of(More)
To establish disease, an infecting organism must overcome a vast array of host defenses. During cystitis, uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) subvert innate defenses by invading superficial umbrella cells and rapidly increasing in numbers to form intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs). In the late stages of the IBC pathway, filamentous and bacillary(More)
Escherichia coli is the most common cause of community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI). During murine cystitis, uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) utilizes type 1 pili to bind and invade superficial bladder epithelial cells. UPEC then replicates within to form intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs), a process whose genetic determinants are as yet(More)
Bacteria that cause chronic and/or recurrent diseases often rely on a biofilm lifestyle. The foundation of the biofilm structure is the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that acts as a barrier to both effectors of the immune system and antimicrobial agents. Recent work has highlighted extracellular DNA (eDNA) as a key component common to many(More)
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli proceed through a complex intracellular developmental pathway that includes multiple morphological changes. During intracellular growth within Toll-like receptor 4-activated superficial bladder epithelial cells, a subpopulation of uropathogenic E. coli initiates SulA-mediated filamentation. In this study, we directly(More)
Recent studies stress the importance of antimicrobial peptides in protecting the urinary tract from infection. Previously, we have shown that ribonuclease 7 (RNase 7) is a potent antimicrobial peptide that has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against uropathogenic bacteria. The urothelium of the lower urinary tract and intercalated cells of the(More)
The gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli is the leading cause of urinary tract infection. The interaction between type 1 piliated E. coli and bladder epithelial cells leads to the rapid production of inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8. Conflicting reports have been published in the literature regarding the mechanism by which(More)
Although the urinary tract is constantly challenged by microbial invasion, it remains free from colonization. Although little is known about how the urinary tract maintains sterility, the presence of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the urine suggests that they may play a role in its protection from infection. Ribonuclease 7 (RNase 7) is a potent AMP that(More)