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Although detractors of functional programming sometimes claim that functional programming is too difficult or counterintuitive for most programmers to understand and use, evidence to the contrary can be found by looking at the popularity of spreadsheets. The spreadsheet paradigm, a first-order subset of the functional programming paradigm, has found wide(More)
— We address the problem of crosstalk computation and reduction using circuit and layout techniques in this paper. We provide easily computable expressions for crosstalk amplitude and pulse width in resistive, capacitively coupled lines. The expressions hold for nets with arbitrary number of pins and of arbitrary topology under any specified input(More)
Previous studies have found an increase in peripheral target localization errors in normally sighted older adults. These results have been interpreted as indicative of a constriction of the "useful field of view". In the present study, we parametrically manipulated masking, distractors and stimulus luminance and examined the relationships between peripheral(More)
Research is emerging on how end users can correct mistakes their intelligent agents make, but before users can correctly “debug” an intelligent agent, they need some degree of understanding of how it works. In this paper we consider ways intelligent agents should explain themselves to end users, especially focusing on how the soundness and(More)
PURPOSE The aim of this study was to identify conserved pharmacodynamic and potential predictive biomarkers of response to anti-VEGF therapy using gene expression profiling in preclinical tumor models and in patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Surrogate markers of VEGF inhibition [VEGF-dependent genes or VEGF-dependent vasculature (VDV)] were identified by(More)
A weakness of many interactive visual programming languages (VPLs) is their static representations. Lack of an adequate static representation places a heavy cognitive burden on a VPL's programmers, because they must remember potentially long dynamic sequences of screen displays in order to understand a previously written program. However, although this(More)
Despite years of research into human computer interaction (HCI), the environments programmers must use for problem-solving today—with separate modes and tools for writing, compiling, testing, visualizing, and debugging— derive their basic structure from historical accident, and take little advantage of HCI research into the cognitive issues of programming.(More)
We believe concreteness, direct manipulation and responsiveness in a visual programming language increase its usefulness. However, these characteristics present a challenge in generalizing programs for reuse, especially when concrete examples are used as one way of achieving concreteness. In this paper, we present a technique to solve this problem by(More)